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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:19:12 UTC
Update Date2020-05-19 22:01:34 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000064
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00064
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCreatine
DescriptionCreatine, also known as cosmocair C 100 or krebiozon, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof. Creatine is a drug which is used for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance. Creatine exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa) molecule. Creatine exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Creatine is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
((Amino(imino)methyl)(methyl)amino)acetic acidChEBI
(alpha-Methylguanido)acetic acidChEBI
(N-Methylcarbamimidamido)acetic acidChEBI
alpha-Methylguanidino acetic acidChEBI
CreatinChEBI
KreatinChEBI
MethylglycocyamineChEBI
N-(Aminoiminomethyl)-N-methylglycineChEBI
N-[(e)-AMINO(imino)methyl]-N-methylglycineChEBI
N-AmidinosarcosineChEBI
N-Carbamimidoyl-N-methylglycineChEBI
N-Methyl-N-guanylglycineChEBI
((Amino(imino)methyl)(methyl)amino)acetateGenerator
(a-Methylguanido)acetateGenerator
(a-Methylguanido)acetic acidGenerator
(alpha-Methylguanido)acetateGenerator
(Α-methylguanido)acetateGenerator
(Α-methylguanido)acetic acidGenerator
(N-Methylcarbamimidamido)acetateGenerator
a-Methylguanidino acetateGenerator
a-Methylguanidino acetic acidGenerator
alpha-Methylguanidino acetateGenerator
Α-methylguanidino acetateGenerator
Α-methylguanidino acetic acidGenerator
Cosmocair C 100HMDB
Creatine hydrateHMDB
KrebiozonHMDB
MethylguanidoacetateHMDB
Methylguanidoacetic acidHMDB
N-(Aminoiminomethyl)-N-methyl-glycineHMDB
PhosphagenHMDB
[[Amino(imino)methyl](methyl)amino]acetateHMDB
[[Amino(imino)methyl](methyl)amino]acetic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H9N3O2
Average Molecular Weight131.1332
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight131.069476547
IUPAC Name2-(N-methylcarbamimidamido)acetic acid
Traditional Namecreatine
CAS Registry Number57-00-1
SMILES
CN(CC(O)=O)C(N)=N
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H9N3O2/c1-7(4(5)6)2-3(8)9/h2H2,1H3,(H3,5,6)(H,8,9)
InChI KeyCVSVTCORWBXHQV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Guanidine
  • Carboximidamide
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Imine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Myelin sheath
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point303 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility13.3 mg/mL at 18 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.43ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area90.41 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity42.01 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.17 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0900000000-7739f1c16da098ff4661View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-f89f340e776ae37776b3View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0900000000-7739f1c16da098ff4661View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-f89f340e776ae37776b3View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-4697e8a17788c105f1aaView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-9600000000-ef8c833ca7ddb4b1a500View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000x-9800000000-bc1387ab36f71e04b988View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-6c686da36a88d9fbdbcfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-13b7d28e8f5be1c5dadaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-cc4bd4c587dd80f63bcbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-3900000000-d35c7578ad50de8377b7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-a4d7fee14f74e1ed8b4bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-e5d62520dfcbf4bfe5c9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-06fbcf897ccce3fa90b7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-9a0b8275e74605a92681View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000f-9000000000-5f622f2c3de4f213a8edView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-20ba65c7a2c9434fcf39View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-01qc-0965022201-53bb6f168e0934ae4a87View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-638479794e8c3a6e0b61View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-39676937b1a3ad0dc0bcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0090000000-d53c75786742ecdb3c16View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001l-0945022201-2fc3f234454021c5e202View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-40aa07f89dddb181e489View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-5aca4d0b8ed7d2500af2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0190000000-9a9685c32bf6c721a497View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-1900000000-c99f9492e0b84d5fae6bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9300000000-8ab609e6dd62bd18841fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-e04e407d5f06d21582c4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-fd81d06317727fa740b1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-8428e2af90720afb4337View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-3162b4c94e66796a643bView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9100000000-47f885347545055f546dView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Myelin sheath
Biospecimen Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Blood
  • Brain
  • Colostrum
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Heart
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Longissimus Thoracis Muscle
  • Mammary Gland
  • Milk
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Semimembranosus Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testis
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Adipose TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BladderExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Jiyuan Li, Everes...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified189.883-542.197 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Arthur K. Anderso...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified196+/-28 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BrainExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
EpidermisExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
FibroblastsExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
HeartExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
IntestineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected and Quantified1321+/-464 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Longissimus Thoracis MuscleDetected and Quantified4672+/-438 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified491 +/- 40 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified537 +/- 30 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified534 +/- 16 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified510 +/- 42 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified432.95 +/- 84.67 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified427.70 +/- 115.63 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified436.42 +/- 79.99 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified10147.92 +/- 171.42 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified6.10+/-2.67 umol/g tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified91.98+/-5.88 umol/g tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified86.62+/-4.69 umol/g tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified83.85+/-4.34 umol/g tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified7262-10319 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified21000 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified7752.34 +/- 490.5 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified8768.14 +/- 196.21 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified8769.99 +/- 413.59 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified1040-1520 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified19488-27111 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
NeuronExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlateletExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified2-15 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified3+/-4 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Hanne Christine B...
details
Semimembranosus MuscleDetected and Quantified4755+/-306 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
SpleenExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
TestisDetected and Quantified7553+/-1850 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Heat stress
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
All Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
High dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Low dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Treated with growth-promoting hormones
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000064
DrugBank IDDB00148
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB005403
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID566
KEGG Compound IDC00300
BioCyc IDCREATINE
BiGG ID34543
Wikipedia LinkCreatine
METLIN ID7
PubChem Compound586
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16919
References
Synthesis ReferenceThalhammer, Franz; Gastner, Thomas. Preparation of creatine, creatine monohydrate and guanidinoacetic acid. Ger. Offen. (2007), 5pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Sundekilde UK, Poulsen NA, Larsen LB, Bertram HC: Nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomics reveals strong association between milk metabolites and somatic cell count in bovine milk. J Dairy Sci. 2013 Jan;96(1):290-9. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5819. Epub 2012 Nov 22. [PubMed:23182357 ]
  2. Sun HZ, Wang DM, Wang B, Wang JK, Liu HY, Guan le L, Liu JX: Metabolomics of four biofluids from dairy cows: potential biomarkers for milk production and quality. J Proteome Res. 2015 Feb 6;14(2):1287-98. doi: 10.1021/pr501305g. Epub 2015 Jan 28. [PubMed:25599412 ]
  3. O'Callaghan TF, Vazquez-Fresno R, Serra-Cayuela A, Dong E, Mandal R, Hennessy D, McAuliffe S, Dillon P, Wishart DS, Stanton C, Ross RP: Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome. Metabolites. 2018 Apr 6;8(2). pii: metabo8020027. doi: 10.3390/metabo8020027. [PubMed:29642378 ]
  4. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CKMT2
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZBP1
Molecular weight:
47231.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CKB
Uniprot ID:
Q5EA61
Molecular weight:
42719.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Creatine → ADP + Phosphocreatinedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CKMT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9TTK8
Molecular weight:
46897.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CKM
Uniprot ID:
Q9XSC6
Molecular weight:
42989.0
General function:
Involved in guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Converts guanidinoacetate to creatine, using S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor. Important in nervous system development.
Gene Name:
GAMT
Uniprot ID:
Q2TBQ3
Molecular weight:
26610.0
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Guanidoacetic acid → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Creatinedetails
Guanidoacetic acid + S-Adenosylhomocysteine → S-Adenosylmethionine + Creatinedetails
General function:
Involved in transcription regulator activity
Specific function:
Transcriptional regulator (lacking a basic DNA binding domain) which negatively regulates the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors by forming heterodimers and inhibiting their DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Implicated in regulating a variety of cellular processes, including cellular growth, senescence, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and neoplastic transformation. Involved in myogenesis by inhibiting skeletal muscle and cardiac myocyte differentiation and promoting muscle precursor cells proliferation. Inhibits the binding of E2A-containing protein complexes to muscle creatine kinase E-box enhancer. Regulates the circadian clock by repressing the transcriptional activator activity of the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ID3
Uniprot ID:
Q5E981
Molecular weight:
12999.0
General function:
Involved in creatine:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Required for the uptake of creatine. Plays an important role in supplying creatine to the brain via the blood-brain barrier (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC6A8
Uniprot ID:
O18875
Molecular weight:
70676.0