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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:19:52 UTC
Update Date2020-05-21 16:28:35 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000125
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00125
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlutathione
DescriptionGlutathione, also known as GSH or agifutol S, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as peptides. Peptides are compounds containing an amide derived from two or more amino carboxylic acid molecules (the same or different) by formation of a covalent bond from the carbonyl carbon of one to the nitrogen atom of another. Glutathione is a drug which is used for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance. Glutathione is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Glutathione exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Within cattle, glutathione participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, leukotriene A4 and glutathione can be converted into leukotriene C4; which is mediated by the enzyme leukotriene C4 synthase. In addition, 15(S)-hpete and glutathione can be converted into 15(S)-hete and oxidized glutathione; which is mediated by the enzyme glutathione peroxidase 1. In cattle, glutathione is involved in the metabolic pathway called the arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. Glutathione is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineChEBI
gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineChEBI
Glutathione-SHChEBI
GSHChEBI
N-(N-gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycineChEBI
Reduced glutathioneChEBI
Poly(gamma-glutamylcysteine)glycineKegg
(gamma-Glutamylcysteine)N-glycineKegg
TathionKegg
g-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineGenerator
Γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineGenerator
N-(N-g-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycineGenerator
N-(N-Γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycineGenerator
Poly(g-glutamylcysteine)glycineGenerator
Poly(γ-glutamylcysteine)glycineGenerator
(g-Glutamylcysteine)N-glycineGenerator
(Γ-glutamylcysteine)N-glycineGenerator
Agifutol SHMDB
Bakezyme RXHMDB
CoprenHMDB
DeltathioneHMDB
gamma-GlutamylcysteinylglycineHMDB
gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineHMDB
GlutathionHMDB
Glutathione redHMDB
Glutathione reducedHMDB
GlutatiolHMDB
GlutationeHMDB
GlutideHMDB
GlutinalHMDB
IsethionHMDB
L-g-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineHMDB
L-gamma-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineHMDB
L-gamma-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineHMDB
L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineHMDB
L-GlutathioneHMDB
L-Glutathione reduceHMDB
LedacHMDB
NeuthionHMDB
Red. glutathioneHMDB
TathioneHMDB
TriptideHMDB
Glutathione, reducedHMDB
gamma L Glu L cys glyHMDB
gamma-L-Glu-L-cys-glyHMDB
gamma L Glutamyl L cysteinylglycineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC10H17N3O6S
Average Molecular Weight307.323
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight307.083805981
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-4-{[(1R)-1-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl]-2-sulfanylethyl]carbamoyl}butanoic acid
Traditional Nameglutathione
CAS Registry Number70-18-8
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(=O)N[C@@H](CS)C(=O)NCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H17N3O6S/c11-5(10(18)19)1-2-7(14)13-6(4-20)9(17)12-3-8(15)16/h5-6,20H,1-4,11H2,(H,12,17)(H,13,14)(H,15,16)(H,18,19)/t5-,6-/m0/s1
InChI KeyRWSXRVCMGQZWBV-WDSKDSINSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as peptides. Peptides are compounds containing an amide derived from two or more amino carboxylic acid molecules (the same or different) by formation of a covalent bond from the carbonyl carbon of one to the nitrogen atom of another.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha peptide
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Alkylthiol
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Exogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point195 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility292.5 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-4.9ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.22ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area158.82 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity69.11 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.11 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (x TMS)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-5841845f736f9a667622View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (x TMS)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-bdecde153761cb67852eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-5841845f736f9a667622View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-bdecde153761cb67852eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-1910000000-52bc43dd913b68d74f84View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-08fs-3960000000-63ce34def2ae94b95515View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0pb9-0921000000-88168b0a9f5fc5fead3fView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-7890000000-5853006f66d946dd3d2eView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0596-9112300000-e82cf72540c283d8e323View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-3795000000-d019cd7dcbad1f8a9e78View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-9400000000-a83bf6292d41988256e3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-305a92f8a9ffea58fa0eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-e950bfc5867b391c6960View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0910000000-83f6c079d1112e74ecf4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-003r-0910000000-5b243cf8bd357ab270b1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-29ef335479f56b620d88View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0009001000-d1f5986166efa523d024View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-056s-0495300000-dba7be381fd1ef776527View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0920000000-de5b8a5a377324599b39View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-053r-0007920000-7500cef211e48c8ea244View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0119003000-4eb7ed4e2a4cf6a83c66View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0uki-0290000000-6893386899c6eed6a1a6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-05g0-0190000000-cacc2de4ab18ed59798bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-6b4268add43ab66ef015View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-08fr-0015009000-a01bdc13a34d6ce8416fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0uki-0290000000-ea94ec8247b4e025adbeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0039210000-e1f721157a9ea89959d6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a59-0039210000-35ce450ea95922abf0e1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-9b01fba547d1fcde113aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0952000000-4a2a42699cf4aab2c559View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-002f-2900000000-bd9ba27b48b1322b7618View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-004m-5900000000-cc7184d5bba50e6e49d0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9200000000-aecd0eb18a10c3ffb7abView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0729-4492000000-78a928563adf9038ba59View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Liver
  • Longissimus Thoracis Muscle
  • Muscle
  • Placenta
  • Semimembranosus Muscle
  • Testis
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
All TissuesExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected and Quantified892+/-472 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Longissimus Thoracis MuscleDetected and Quantified226+/-51 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified769-775 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Semimembranosus MuscleDetected and Quantified162+/-46 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
TestisDetected and Quantified1453+/-257 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
HMDB IDHMDB0000125
DrugBank IDDB00143
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB001498
KNApSAcK IDC00001518
Chemspider ID111188
KEGG Compound IDC00051
BioCyc IDGLUTATHIONE
BiGG ID33669
Wikipedia LinkGlutathione
METLIN ID44
PubChem Compound124886
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16856
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Serine hydrolase involved in the detoxification of formaldehyde.
Gene Name:
ESD
Uniprot ID:
Q08E20
Molecular weight:
31548.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSS
Uniprot ID:
Q5EAC2
Molecular weight:
52066.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Glycine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Glutathionedetails
Gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Adenosine triphosphate + Glycine → Glutathione + ADP + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Involved in the control of reactive oxygen species levels and the regulation of mitochondrial redox homeostasis (By similarity). Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. May play a role in redox-regulated cell signaling.
Gene Name:
TXNRD2
Uniprot ID:
Q9N2I8
Molecular weight:
54670.0
Reactions
Oxidized glutathione + NADPH →2 Glutathione + NADPdetails
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Essential antioxidant peroxidase that directly reduces phospholipid hydroperoxide even if they are incorporated in membranes and lipoproteins (By similarity). Can also reduce fatty acid hydroperoxide, cholesterol hydroperoxide and thymine hydroperoxide (By similarity). Plays a key role in protecting cells from oxidative damage by preventing membrane lipid peroxidation. Required to prevent cells from ferroptosis, a non-apoptotic cell death resulting from an iron-dependent accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species. The presence of selenocysteine (Sec) versus Cys at the active site is essential for life: it provides resistance to overoxidation and prevents cells against ferroptosis. The presence of Sec at the active site is also essential for the survival of a specific type of parvalbumin-positive interneurons, thereby preventing against fatal epileptic seizures. May be required to protect cells from the toxicity of ingested lipid hydroperoxides. Required for normal sperm development and male fertility. Essential for maturation and survival of photoreceptor cells. Plays a role in a primary T-cell response to viral and parasitic infection by protecting T-cells from ferroptosis and by supporting T-cell expansion (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GPX4
Uniprot ID:
Q9N2J2
Molecular weight:
22240.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione.
Gene Name:
GPX3
Uniprot ID:
P37141
Molecular weight:
25663.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name:
GPX1
Uniprot ID:
P00435
Molecular weight:
22659.0
Reactions
2 Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione +2 Waterdetails
15(S)-HPETE + 2 Glutathione → 15(S)-HETE + Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
NADPH-dependent reductase with broad substrate specificity. Catalyzes the reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl compounds including quinones, prostaglandins, menadione, plus various xenobiotics. Catalyzes the reduction of the antitumor anthracyclines doxorubicin and daunorubicin to the cardiotoxic compounds doxorubicinol and daunorubicinol. Can convert prostaglandin E2 to prostaglandin F2-alpha. Can bind glutathione, which explains its higher affinity for glutathione-conjugated substrates. Catalyzes the reduction of S-nitrosoglutathione (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CBR1
Uniprot ID:
Q3SZD7
Molecular weight:
30533.0
General function:
Involved in enzyme activator activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conjugation of leukotriene A4 with reduced glutathione to form leukotriene C4.
Gene Name:
LTC4S
Uniprot ID:
Q2NKS0
Molecular weight:
16701.0
Reactions
Leukotriene A4 + Glutathione → Leukotriene C4details
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Also binds steroids, bilirubin, carcinogens and numerous organic anions. Has dichloromethane dehalogenase activity.
Gene Name:
GSTT1
Uniprot ID:
Q2NL00
Molecular weight:
27149.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Also functions as a glutathione peroxidase.
Gene Name:
MGST3
Uniprot ID:
Q3T100
Molecular weight:
16884.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSTA4
Uniprot ID:
Q32L24
Molecular weight:
25673.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a wide substrate specificity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MGST1
Uniprot ID:
Q64L89
Molecular weight:
17645.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Protects against the thiol-mediated metal-catalysed oxidative inactivation of enzymes.
Gene Name:
GSTM1
Uniprot ID:
Q9N0V4
Molecular weight:
25635.0
General function:
Involved in hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Thiolesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of S-D-lactoyl-glutathione to form glutathione and D-lactic acid.
Gene Name:
HAGH
Uniprot ID:
Q3B7M2
Molecular weight:
34089.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q9TQX5
Molecular weight:
2292.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTA4
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9G0
Molecular weight:
25659.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSTM3
Uniprot ID:
Q2KIV8
Molecular weight:
26850.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSTA3
Uniprot ID:
Q1JQ90
Molecular weight:
25650.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPX7
Uniprot ID:
A6QLY2
Molecular weight:
20908.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q9TRQ0
Molecular weight:
2493.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSTA5
Uniprot ID:
A5PJE0
Molecular weight:
25394.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P28801
Molecular weight:
23613.0
General function:
Involved in enzyme activator activity
Specific function:
Can catalyze the production of LTC4 from LTA4 and reduced glutathione. Can catalyze the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene with reduced glutathione (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MGST2
Uniprot ID:
Q2KJG4
Molecular weight:
16483.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSTO1
Uniprot ID:
Q0VCE1
Molecular weight:
15808.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPX8
Uniprot ID:
Q2NL01
Molecular weight:
23983.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Possesses significant protein thiol-disulfide oxidase activity.
Gene Name:
TXNDC12
Uniprot ID:
Q5E936
Molecular weight:
19222.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSTM4
Uniprot ID:
A1A4L7
Molecular weight:
25670.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTA2
Uniprot ID:
O18879
Molecular weight:
25717.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Glutathione S-transferase that catalyzes the nucleophilic attack of the sulfur atom of glutathione on the electrophilic groups of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds. Involved in the formation of glutathione conjugates of both prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) and prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2). It also catalyzes the isomerization of D5-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) into D4-androstene-3,17-dione and may therefore play an important role in hormone biosynthesis. Through its glutathione-dependent peroxidase activity toward the fatty acid hydroperoxide (13S)-hydroperoxy-(9Z,11E)-octadecadienoate/13-HPODE it is also involved in the metabolism of oxidized linoleic acid.
Gene Name:
GSTA1
Uniprot ID:
Q28035
Molecular weight:
25452.0
General function:
Defense mechanisms
Specific function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs by decreasing accumulation of drug in cells, and by mediating ATP- and GSH-dependent drug export (PubMed:12067707). Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency. Catalyzes the export of sphingosine 1-phosphate from mast cells independently of their degranulation (By similarity). Participates in inflammatory response by allowing export of leukotriene C4 from leukotriene C4-synthezing cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
Q8HXQ5
Molecular weight:
171666.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSTM2
Uniprot ID:
A5PKM0
Molecular weight:
26842.0
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSTM1
Uniprot ID:
A4IFG0
Molecular weight:
25780.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Cleaves glutathione conjugates.
Gene Name:
GGT6
Uniprot ID:
A7YWM1
Molecular weight:
49626.0
Reactions
Glutathione + L-Alanine → 5-L-Glutamyl-L-alanine + Cysteinylglycinedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of hemimercaptal, formed from methylglyoxal and glutathione, to S-lactoylglutathione.
Gene Name:
GLO1
Uniprot ID:
A4FUZ1
Molecular weight:
20766.0
Reactions
S-Lactoylglutathione → Glutathione + Pyruvaldehydedetails