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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:20:09 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 22:45:52 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000148
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00148
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Glutamic acid
DescriptionL-Glutamic acid, also known as glutamate or acide glutamique, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. Glutamic acid and derivatives are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom. L-Glutamic acid exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa) molecule. L-Glutamic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. L-Glutamic acid participates in a number of enzymatic reactions, within cattle. In particular, N5-Formyl-THF and L-glutamic acid can be converted into tetrahydrofolic acid and N-formyl-L-glutamic acid; which is mediated by the enzyme formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase. In addition, Tetrahydrofolic acid and L-glutamic acid can be converted into tetrahydrofolyl-[glu](2); which is catalyzed by the enzyme folylpolyglutamate synthase. In cattle, L-glutamic acid is involved in the metabolic pathway called the folate metabolism pathway. L-Glutamic acid is a potentially toxic compound. L-Glutamic acid has been found to be associated with several diseases known as irritable bowel syndrome, periodontal disease, ulcerative colitis, and diverticular disease; also l-glutamic acid has been linked to the inborn metabolic disorders including rett syndrome.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidChEBI
(S)-Glutamic acidChEBI
Acide glutamiqueChEBI
Acido glutamicoChEBI
Acidum glutamicumChEBI
EChEBI
GluChEBI
GlutamateChEBI
GLUTAMIC ACIDChEBI
L-GluChEBI
L-Glutaminic acidChEBI
L-GlutaminsaeureChEBI
(S)-2-AminopentanedioateGenerator
(S)-GlutamateGenerator
L-GlutaminateGenerator
L-GlutamateGenerator
(2S)-2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
(S)-(+)-GlutamateHMDB
(S)-(+)-Glutamic acidHMDB
1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylateHMDB
1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylateHMDB
1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
2-AminoglutarateHMDB
2-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
a-AminoglutarateHMDB
a-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
a-GlutamateHMDB
a-Glutamic acidHMDB
AciglutHMDB
alpha-AminoglutarateHMDB
alpha-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
alpha-GlutamateHMDB
alpha-Glutamic acidHMDB
AminoglutarateHMDB
Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
GltHMDB
GlusateHMDB
GlutHMDB
GlutacidHMDB
GlutamicolHMDB
GlutamidexHMDB
GlutaminateHMDB
Glutaminic acidHMDB
GlutaminolHMDB
GlutatonHMDB
L-(+)-GlutamateHMDB
L-(+)-Glutamic acidHMDB
L-a-AminoglutarateHMDB
L-a-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
L-alpha-AminoglutarateHMDB
L-alpha-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
D GlutamateHMDB
Glutamate, potassiumHMDB
Glutamic acid, (D)-isomerHMDB
L Glutamic acidHMDB
D-GlutamateHMDB
L GlutamateHMDB
Aluminum L glutamateHMDB
Aluminum L-glutamateHMDB
L-Glutamate, aluminumHMDB
Potassium glutamateHMDB
2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucoseHMDB
D-GlcNAcHMDB
N-Acetyl-D-glucosamineHMDB
N-AcetylchitosamineHMDB
N Acetyl D glucosamineHMDB
2 Acetamido 2 deoxy D glucoseHMDB
2 Acetamido 2 deoxyglucoseHMDB
2-Acetamido-2-deoxyglucoseHMDB
AcetylglucosamineHMDB
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
N-[(3alpha,5beta,7alpha,12alpha)-3,7,12-Trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]glycineHMDB
N-CholoylglycineHMDB
3a,7a,12a-Trihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
3Α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
N-[(3a,5b,7a,12a)-3,7,12-Trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]glycineHMDB
N-[(3Α,5β,7α,12α)-3,7,12-trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]glycineHMDB
GlycocholateHMDB
Glycine cholateHMDB
Glycocholic acid, sodium saltHMDB
CholylglycineHMDB
Glycocholate sodiumHMDB
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholanic acid-24-glycineHMDB
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-N-(carboxymethyl)-5beta-cholan-24-amideHMDB
3Α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid-24-glycineHMDB
3Α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-N-(carboxymethyl)-5β-cholan-24-amideHMDB
Glycoreductodehydrocholic acidHMDB
GlycylcholateHMDB
Glycylcholic acidHMDB
N-(Carboxymethyl)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-amideHMDB
N-(Carboxymethyl)-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-amideHMDB
N-Choloyl-glycineHMDB
3-Hydroxy-1,3,5(10)-estratrien-17-oneHMDB
Follicular hormoneHMDB
FolliculinHMDB
OestroneHMDB
(+)-EstroneHMDB
1,3,5(10)-Estratrien-3-ol-17-oneHMDB
3-Hydroxy-17-keto-estra-1,3,5-trieneHMDB
3-Hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-oneHMDB
3-Hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-triene-17-oneHMDB
3-Hydroxyoestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-oneHMDB
D1,3,5(10)-Estratrien-3-ol-17-oneHMDB
Estrone, (+-)-isomerHMDB
Hyrex brand OF estroneHMDB
Estrone, (9 beta)-isomerHMDB
EstrovarinHMDB
KestroneHMDB
WehgenHMDB
Estrone, (8 alpha)-isomerHMDB
Hauck brand OF estroneHMDB
UnigenHMDB
Vortech brand OF estroneHMDB
alpha,beta-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
D-GroAHMDB
R-Glyceric acidHMDB
GlycerateHMDB
(R)-GlycerateHMDB
a,b-HydroxypropionateHMDB
a,b-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
alpha,beta-HydroxypropionateHMDB
Α,β-hydroxypropionateHMDB
Α,β-hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
R-GlycerateHMDB
(R)-Glyceric acidHMDB
D-GlycerateHMDB
D-Glyceric acidHMDB
(2R)-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
(R)-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
D-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
1-Amino-2-hydroxyethaneHMDB
2-Amino-1-ethanolHMDB
2-Amino-ethanolHMDB
2-Aminoethan-1-olHMDB
2-Aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
2-HydroxyethylamineHMDB
AethanolaminHMDB
AminoethanolHMDB
beta-AminoethanolHMDB
beta-Aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
beta-EthanolamineHMDB
beta-HydroxyethylamineHMDB
ColamineHMDB
ETAHMDB
GlycinolHMDB
HeaHMDB
MEAHMDB
MONOETHANOLAMINEHMDB
b-AminoethanolHMDB
Β-aminoethanolHMDB
b-Aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
Β-aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
b-EthanolamineHMDB
Β-ethanolamineHMDB
b-HydroxyethylamineHMDB
Β-hydroxyethylamineHMDB
2-AminoethanolHMDB
2-EthanolamineHMDB
2-HydroxyethanamineHMDB
Envision conditioner PDD 9020HMDB
EthylolamineHMDB
H-GlycinolHMDB
MonoaethanolaminHMDB
OlamineHMDB
2 AminoethanolHMDB
(3R,4S,5R)-5-[(1R)-1-Carboxy-2,2-difluoro-1-(phosphonooxy)ethoxy]-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylateHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-b-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoateHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-b-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoic acidHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoic acidHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-Β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoateHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-Β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO4
Average Molecular Weight147.1293
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight147.053157781
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Traditional NameL-glutamic acid
CAS Registry Number56-86-0
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
InChI KeyWHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. Glutamic acid and derivatives are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentGlutamic acid and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glutamic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Lysosome
  • Mitochondria
  • Myelin sheath
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility8.57 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.69HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity31.29 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.32 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Lysosome
  • Mitochondria
  • Myelin sheath
Biospecimen Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Blood
  • Colostrum
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Longissimus Thoracis Muscle
  • Mammary Gland
  • Milk
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Semen
  • Semimembranosus Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testis
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Adipose TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Adrenal MedullaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified85.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1909 +/- 659 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Abdullah BASOGLU,...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified193-202 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified299.1 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified174-198 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified92 +/- 19 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified35-39 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
EpidermisExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
FibroblastsExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
IntestineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected and Quantified6122-7999 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected and Quantified4092 +/- 928 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Longissimus Thoracis MuscleDetected and Quantified425 +/- 180 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified196.16 +/- 64.07 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified44 - 693 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified270 - 740 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified297 +/- 8 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified260 +/- 11 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified303 +/- 9 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified257 +/- 25 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified188.62 +/- 77.08 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified259 +/- 10 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified263 +/- 15 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified260 +/- 23 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified271 +/- 21 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified190.87 +/- 67.63 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified47577.199 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified47577.199 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified47577.199 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified47577.199 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified46217.851 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified46217.851 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified46217.851 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified229.91 +/- 25.7 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified241.62 +/- 45.32 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified196-510 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified393.05 +/- 31.17 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified1690 +/- 210 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified9830 +/- 1550 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified8380 +/- 640 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified9210 +/- 740 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified489.03 +/- 20.47 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified910 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified80-104 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified134-942 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
NeuronExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PancreasExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlateletExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified380 +/- 59 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified490 +/- 92 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified517 +/- 115 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified333 +/- 12 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified333 +/- 12 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified238-887 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified179-448 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified342 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified442 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified425 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified317 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified1702 +/- 471 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified379.4 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified490.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified516.5 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified361.4 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SemenDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Semimembranosus MuscleDetected and Quantified541 +/- 234 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
SpleenExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
TestisDetected and Quantified1950-2430 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
TestisDetected and Quantified3270 +/- 702 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Treated with growth-promoting hormones
details
BloodDetected and Quantified76.6 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy negative
details
BloodDetected and Quantified80.2 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy positive
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2348 +/- 312 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Left displaced abomasum (LDA)
    • Abdullah BASOGLU,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1056 +/- 381 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Right displaced abomasum (RDA)
    • Abdullah BASOGLU,...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
All Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
High dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Low dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000148
DrugBank IDDB00142
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB012535
KNApSAcK IDC00001358
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00025
BioCyc IDGLT
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkL-Glutamic_Acid
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound33032
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16015
References
Synthesis ReferenceHorner, L.; Gross, A. Tertiary phosphines. IV. Use of phosphine imines in causing the introduction of primary amino groups. Liebigs Ann. Chem. (1955), 591 117-34.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Klein MS, Almstetter MF, Schlamberger G, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Oefner PJ, Meyer HH, Wiedemann S, Gronwald W: Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based milk metabolomics in dairy cows during early and late lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2010 Apr;93(4):1539-50. doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2563. [PubMed:20338431 ]
  2. Klein MS, Buttchereit N, Miemczyk SP, Immervoll AK, Louis C, Wiedemann S, Junge W, Thaller G, Oefner PJ, Gronwald W: NMR metabolomic analysis of dairy cows reveals milk glycerophosphocholine to phosphocholine ratio as prognostic biomarker for risk of ketosis. J Proteome Res. 2012 Feb 3;11(2):1373-81. doi: 10.1021/pr201017n. Epub 2011 Dec 9. [PubMed:22098372 ]
  3. Sundekilde UK, Gustavsson F, Poulsen NA, Glantz M, Paulsson M, Larsen LB, Bertram HC: Association between the bovine milk metabolome and rennet-induced coagulation properties of milk. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Oct;97(10):6076-84. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8304. Epub 2014 Jul 30. [PubMed:25087032 ]
  4. Buitenhuis AJ, Sundekilde UK, Poulsen NA, Bertram HC, Larsen LB, Sorensen P: Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for metabolites in Danish Holstein milk. J Dairy Sci. 2013 May;96(5):3285-95. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5914. Epub 2013 Mar 15. [PubMed:23497994 ]
  5. Lu J, Antunes Fernandes E, Paez Cano AE, Vinitwatanakhun J, Boeren S, van Hooijdonk T, van Knegsel A, Vervoort J, Hettinga KA: Changes in milk proteome and metabolome associated with dry period length, energy balance, and lactation stage in postparturient dairy cows. J Proteome Res. 2013 Jul 5;12(7):3288-96. doi: 10.1021/pr4001306. Epub 2013 Jun 5. [PubMed:23738862 ]
  6. Mung D, Li L: Development of Chemical Isotope Labeling LC-MS for Milk Metabolomics: Comprehensive and Quantitative Profiling of the Amine/Phenol Submetabolome. Anal Chem. 2017 Apr 18;89(8):4435-4443. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03737. Epub 2017 Mar 28. [PubMed:28306241 ]
  7. O'Callaghan TF, Vazquez-Fresno R, Serra-Cayuela A, Dong E, Mandal R, Hennessy D, McAuliffe S, Dillon P, Wishart DS, Stanton C, Ross RP: Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome. Metabolites. 2018 Apr 6;8(2). pii: metabo8020027. doi: 10.3390/metabo8020027. [PubMed:29642378 ]
  8. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
  9. Fooddata+, The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) [Link]

Enzymes

General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Glutamine synthetase that catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of glutamate and ammonia to glutamine (By similarity). Its role depends on tissue localization: in the brain, it regulates the levels of toxic ammonia and converts neurotoxic glutamate to harmless glutamine, whereas in the liver, it is one of the enzymes responsible for the removal of ammonia (By similarity). Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts. Independently of its glutamine synthetase activity, required for endothelial cell migration during vascular development: acts by regulating membrane localization and activation of the GTPase RHOJ, possibly by promoting RHOJ palmitoylation. May act as a palmitoyltransferase for RHOJ: able to autopalmitoylate and then transfer the palmitoyl group to RHOJ (By similarity). Plays a role in ribosomal 40S subunit biogenesis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GLUL
Uniprot ID:
P15103
Molecular weight:
42031.0
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives allowing concentration of folate compounds in the cell and the intracellular retention of these cofactors, which are important substrates for most of the folate-dependent enzymes that are involved in one-carbon transfer reactions involved in purine, pyrimidine and amino acid synthesis.
Gene Name:
FPGS
Uniprot ID:
A6H751
Molecular weight:
64900.0
Reactions
Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate → Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2) + ADP + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2) + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid → Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](n) + ADP + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSS
Uniprot ID:
Q5EAC2
Molecular weight:
52066.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
BCAT1
Uniprot ID:
A4IFQ7
Molecular weight:
43185.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. May also function as a transporter of branched chain alpha-keto acids (By similarity).
Gene Name:
BCAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q5EA40
Molecular weight:
44648.0
Reactions
L-Valine + Oxoglutaric acid → Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acid → Ketoleucine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid → 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
BCAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q0V8J6
Molecular weight:
44274.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
BCAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9U7
Molecular weight:
40447.0
General function:
Transcription
Specific function:
Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and glutamate. Shows activity also towards tryptophan, aspartate and hydroxykynurenine. Accepts a variety of oxo-acids as amino-group acceptors, with a preference for 2-oxoglutarate, 2-oxocaproic acid, phenylpyruvate and alpha-oxo-gamma-methiol butyric acid. Can also use glyoxylate as amino-group acceptor (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AADAT
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9N4
Molecular weight:
47901.0
Reactions
Aminoadipic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → Oxoadipic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
L-Kynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
L-3-Hydroxykynurenine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-(2-Amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ASNS
Uniprot ID:
Q1LZA3
Molecular weight:
64220.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Aminopeptidase with specificity towards an acidic amino acid at the N-terminus. Likely to play an important role in intracellular protein and peptide metabolism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DNPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q2HJH1
Molecular weight:
51828.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. Important regulator of levels of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system. Acts as a scavenger of glutamate in brain neuroprotection. The aspartate aminotransferase activity is involved in hepatic glucose synthesis during development and in adipocyte glyceroneogenesis. Using L-cysteine as substrate, regulates levels of mercaptopyruvate, an important source of hydrogen sulfide. Mercaptopyruvate is converted into H(2)S via the action of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). Hydrogen sulfide is an important synaptic modulator and neuroprotectant in the brain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GOT1
Uniprot ID:
P33097
Molecular weight:
46399.0
Reactions
3-Sulfinoalanine + Oxoglutaric acid → 3-Sulfinylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
L-Cysteine + Oxoglutaric acid → 3-Mercaptopyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
Oxoglutaric acid + L-Aspartic acid → Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. Important for metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Facilitates cellular uptake of long-chain free fatty acids (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GOT2
Uniprot ID:
P12344
Molecular weight:
47514.0
Reactions
L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GOT1L1
Uniprot ID:
Q2T9S8
Molecular weight:
45918.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Regulates central hypertension through its calcium-modulated preference to cleave N-terminal acidic residues from peptides such as angiotensin II.
Gene Name:
ENPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q32LQ0
Molecular weight:
109801.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
Q9BGI0
Molecular weight:
56731.0
Reactions
Beta-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Malonic semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid → Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
(S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid → (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in lysine degradation. The N-terminal and the C-terminal contain lysine-oxoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, respectively (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AASS
Uniprot ID:
A8E657
Molecular weight:
102084.0
Reactions
Saccharopine + Water + NAD → Allysine + L-Glutamic acid + NADHdetails
General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
N(6)-(L-1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-L-lysine + NAD(+) + H(2)O = L-glutamate + 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde + NADH
Gene Name:
SCCPDH
Uniprot ID:
Q3T067
Molecular weight:
47320.0
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Controls the flux of glucose into the hexosamine pathway. Most likely involved in regulating the availability of precursors for N- and O-linked glycosylation of proteins (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GFPT2
Uniprot ID:
Q08DQ2
Molecular weight:
77081.0
Reactions
Fructose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine → Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
Specific function:
Allows the formation of correctly charged Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Glu-tRNA(Gln) in the mitochondria. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP through an activated gamma-phospho-Glu-tRNA(Gln).
Gene Name:
QRSL1
Uniprot ID:
Q29RP9
Molecular weight:
57300.0
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amidation of deamido-NAD to form NAD. Uses L-glutamine as a nitrogen source.
Gene Name:
NADSYN1
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZBF0
Molecular weight:
79400.0
Reactions
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Adenosine triphosphate + Water + L-Glutamine → NAD + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PSAT1
Uniprot ID:
A6QR28
Molecular weight:
40529.0
Reactions
Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid → Phosphoserine + Oxoglutaric aciddetails
General function:
Replication, recombination and repair
Specific function:
Mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase that converts L-glutamate into alpha-ketoglutarate. Plays a key role in glutamine anaplerosis by producing alpha-ketoglutarate, an important intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. May be involved in learning and memory reactions by increasing the turnover of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.
Gene Name:
GLUD1
Uniprot ID:
P00366
Molecular weight:
61512.0
Reactions
L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADHdetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of 5-oxo-L-proline to form L-glutamate coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate.
Gene Name:
OPLAH
Uniprot ID:
Q75WB5
Molecular weight:
137450.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Pyroglutamic acid + 2 Water → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GPT
Uniprot ID:
A4IFH5
Molecular weight:
55275.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has much lower affinity and transaminase activity for phenylalanine (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TAT
Uniprot ID:
Q58CZ9
Molecular weight:
49691.0
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Irreversible conversion of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), derived either from proline or ornithine, to glutamate. This is a necessary step in the pathway interconnecting the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. The preferred substrate is glutamic gamma-semialdehyde, other substrates include succinic, glutaric and adipic semialdehydes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH4A1
Uniprot ID:
A7YWE4
Molecular weight:
61495.0
Reactions
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD + 2 Water → L-Glutamic acid + NADHdetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). May catalyze the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)cysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond (By similarity). Has transaminase activity towards L-kynurenine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, serine, cysteine, methionine, histidine, glutamine and asparagine with glyoxylate as an amino group acceptor (in vitro). Has lower activity with 2-oxoglutarate as amino group acceptor (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
KYAT3
Uniprot ID:
Q0P5G4
Molecular weight:
51472.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Gene Name:
GAD1
Uniprot ID:
Q0VCA1
Molecular weight:
66784.0
Reactions
L-Glutamic acid → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in ADP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCLC
Uniprot ID:
Q32S38
Molecular weight:
69023.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Cysteine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Gamma-Glutamylcysteinedetails
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Cysteine → Gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Adenosine diphosphate ribose + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
OAT
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZCF5
Molecular weight:
48075.0
Reactions
Ornithine + Oxoglutaric acid → L-Glutamic-gamma-semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Regulates intracellular concentrations of taurine and glutamate. Negatively modulates SLC1A1/EAAC1 glutamate transport activity by decreasing its affinity for glutamate in a PKC activity-dependent manner. May be involved in membrane traffic.
Gene Name:
ARL6IP5
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9M1
Molecular weight:
21666.0
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC1A6
Uniprot ID:
A6H774
Molecular weight:
61424.0
General function:
Involved in glutamate:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC1A2
Uniprot ID:
A5HSH1
Molecular weight:
2798.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CAD
Uniprot ID:
F1MVC0
Molecular weight:
243038.0
Reactions
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen carbonate + Water →2 ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Carbamoylphosphatedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCLM
Uniprot ID:
Q2T9Y6
Molecular weight:
30533.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Cysteine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Gamma-Glutamylcysteinedetails
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Cysteine → Gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Adenosine diphosphate ribose + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLS2
Uniprot ID:
E1BHZ6
Molecular weight:
66700.0
Reactions
L-Glutamine + Water → L-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PPAT
Uniprot ID:
F1MV22
Molecular weight:
59900.0
Reactions
5-Phosphoribosylamine + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid → L-Glutamine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + Waterdetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GMPS
Uniprot ID:
Q2T9U0
Molecular weight:
77865.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + Water + L-Glutamine → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Guanosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
EARS2
Uniprot ID:
G3N260
Molecular weight:
58494.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + tRNA(Glu) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)details
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
FTCD
Uniprot ID:
F1MNA6
Molecular weight:
60005.0
Reactions
Tetrahydrofolic acid + Formiminoglutamic acid → 5-Formiminotetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the polyglutamate sidechains of pteroylpolyglutamates. Progressively removes gamma-glutamyl residues from pteroylpoly-gamma-glutamate to yield pteroyl-alpha-glutamate (folic acid) and free glutamate. May play an important role in the bioavailability of dietary pteroylpolyglutamates and in the metabolism of pteroylpolyglutamates and antifolates. Exhibits either endo- or exopeptidase activity depending upon the tissue of origin. When secreted, it acts primarily as an endopeptidase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GGH
Uniprot ID:
A7YWG4
Molecular weight:
35683.0
Reactions
Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](n) + Water → Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2) + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
EPRS1
Uniprot ID:
G3X6L9
Molecular weight:
169931.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + tRNA(Glu) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)details