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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:26:56 UTC
Update Date2020-05-21 16:28:48 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000220
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00220
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePalmitic acid
DescriptionPalmitic acid, also known as C16 or palmitate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms. Palmitic acid exists as a solid, very hydrophobic, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral molecule. Palmitic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Palmitic acid is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-Hexyldecanoic acidChEBI
1-Pentadecanecarboxylic acidChEBI
16:00ChEBI
C16ChEBI
C16 Fatty acidChEBI
C16:0ChEBI
Cetylic acidChEBI
CH3-[CH2]14-COOHChEBI
FA 16:0ChEBI
HexadecanoateChEBI
Hexadecoic acidChEBI
Hexadecylic acidChEBI
Hexaectylic acidChEBI
N-Hexadecanoic acidChEBI
N-Hexadecoic acidChEBI
PalmitateChEBI
Palmitinic acidChEBI
PalmitinsaeureChEBI
Pentadecanecarboxylic acidChEBI
1-HexyldecanoateGenerator
1-PentadecanecarboxylateGenerator
CetylateGenerator
Hexadecanoic acidGenerator
HexadecoateGenerator
HexadecylateGenerator
HexaectylateGenerator
N-HexadecanoateGenerator
N-HexadecoateGenerator
PalmitinateGenerator
PentadecanecarboxylateGenerator
Edenor C16HMDB
Emersol 140HMDB
Emersol 143HMDB
Glycon p-45HMDB
Hexadecanoate (N-C16:0)HMDB
Hexadecanoic acid palmitic acidHMDB
HydrofolHMDB
Hydrofol acid 1690HMDB
Hystrene 8016HMDB
Hystrene 9016HMDB
Industrene 4516HMDB
Kortacid 1698HMDB
Loxiol ep 278HMDB
Lunac p 95HMDB
Lunac p 95KCHMDB
Lunac p 98HMDB
PalmitoateHMDB
Palmitoic acidHMDB
PAMHMDB
PLMHMDB
Prifac 2960HMDB
Prifrac 2960HMDB
Pristerene 4934HMDB
Univol u332HMDB
Acid, hexadecanoicHMDB
Acid, palmiticHMDB
FA(16:0)HMDB
Chemical FormulaC16H32O2
Average Molecular Weight256.4241
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight256.240230268
IUPAC Namehexadecanoic acid
Traditional Namepalmitic acid
CAS Registry Number57-10-3
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C16H32O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16(17)18/h2-15H2,1H3,(H,17,18)
InChI KeyIPCSVZSSVZVIGE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentLong-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Exogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Adiposome
  • Cell membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point61.8 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility4e-05 mg/mLNot Available
LogP7.17SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP7.23ALOGPS
logP6.26ChemAxon
logS-5.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity77.08 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability34.36 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-014i-0901000000-51ee83f9462d25fa4045View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-0100-9700000000-3d8b6cf4736afa482b57View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0159-2901000000-fb423e89a78708021db1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0abc-9110000000-6d7f0dbe5b588850b941View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0901000000-51ee83f9462d25fa4045View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0100-9700000000-3d8b6cf4736afa482b57View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-2901000000-fb423e89a78708021db1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-2901000000-fb423e89a78708021db1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-1900000000-d7638a578d846871e670View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9610000000-f75185fa40c090817f46View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-022i-9440000000-7d3a81432d58729f9f98View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-0090000000-39c3a0e17432781e9760View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-0090000000-8ec1a6953701fc22ce27View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0fba-9200000000-23c995bf81d5ef609489View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-0abc-9110000000-12f1884d67998fb924a5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-004i-0091010000-6922411e48d747e592b5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-0091010000-6922411e48d747e592b5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0091010000-6922411e48d747e592b5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0091010000-6922411e48d747e592b5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0091000000-4f6858c1cc0f04cbabf5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-14e58eecd83ba52123c2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-c3f9f4d5c336137b7fcfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-47919da3faa8e0f52bbcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-fdd9e98416da12470fe9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-26bb4965a56ab0e82b49View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-06rj-5790000000-251700f3edf9a5af04cdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9600000000-5b75a67e276017f221b8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-26bb4965a56ab0e82b49View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-06rj-5790000000-251700f3edf9a5af04cdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9600000000-5b75a67e276017f221b8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-e4a4200bd25f8fa480ccView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0bti-1090000000-768a48058fc0a2d7a877View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9320000000-c9714c7ffdc804bf9323View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-e4a4200bd25f8fa480ccView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0bti-1090000000-768a48058fc0a2d7a877View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9320000000-c9714c7ffdc804bf9323View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-06xx-9100000000-7ac9cd088cb9cb9f7560View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Adiposome
  • Cell membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Blood
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Mammary Gland
  • Milk
  • Muscle
  • Oocyte
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Semen
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified52170.21 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. Mapiye, T.D.Tu...
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified57060.16 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. Mapiye, T.D.Tu...
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified701466.83 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. Mapiye, T.D.Tu...
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified1011294.96 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. Mapiye, T.D.Tu...
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified676992.53 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. Mapiye, T.D.Tu...
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified856077.1 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. Mapiye, T.D.Tu...
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified965197.89 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified944139.03 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified975883.31 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified968356.72 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BladderExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Laura Evans, Stua...
details
EpidermisExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
FibroblastsExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified29 +/- 1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified104 +/- 4 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified54.3 +/- 2.2 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified47.3 +/- 2.3 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified16691.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified15989.14 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified3470.813 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified5303.71 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified3470.813 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified40167.831 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified38997.9 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified36658.02 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified90.04 +/- 12.70 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Bashar Amer, Caro...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified106.07 +/- 14.43 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Bashar Amer, Caro...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified50.79 +/- 2.60 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Bashar Amer, Caro...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified13.85 +/- 2.31 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Bashar Amer, Caro...
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified78.82 +/- 1.33 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Bashar Amer, Caro...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified45627.554 +/- 15209.185 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified124.325 +/- 0.62 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Catrienus De Jong...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified220.8 +/- 41.8 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified131.1 +/- 22.8 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified48864.381 +/- 11699.373 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • M. Ferrand et al....
details
MilkDetected and Quantified49098.368 +/- 11270.396 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • M. Ferrand et al....
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Lawrence K. Cream...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified396608.587 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • M.J. Abarghuei, Y...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified458615.239 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • M.J. Abarghuei, Y...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified479284.123 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • M.J. Abarghuei, Y...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified491373.471 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • M.J. Abarghuei, Y...
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
OocyteDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlateletExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified243.0 +/- 35.0 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified243.1 +/- 35.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
SemenDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SemenDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Skeletal MuscleExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Sub/clinical ketosis
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000220
DrugBank IDDB03796
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB031084
KNApSAcK IDC00030479
Chemspider ID960
KEGG Compound IDC00249
BioCyc IDPALMITATE
BiGG ID34386
Wikipedia LinkPalmitic_acid
METLIN ID187
PubChem Compound985
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15756
References
Synthesis ReferenceXu, Yan; Ling, Li. A method for preparing conjugated linoleic acid and palmitic acid. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2005), 5 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Soyeurt H, Dardenne P, Dehareng F, Lognay G, Veselko D, Marlier M, Bertozzi C, Mayeres P, Gengler N: Estimating fatty acid content in cow milk using mid-infrared spectrometry. J Dairy Sci. 2006 Sep;89(9):3690-5. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72409-2. [PubMed:16899705 ]
  2. Jensen RG: The composition of bovine milk lipids: January 1995 to December 2000. J Dairy Sci. 2002 Feb;85(2):295-350. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74079-4. [PubMed:11913692 ]
  3. Auldist MJ, Walsh BJ, Thomson NA: Seasonal and lactational influences on bovine milk composition in New Zealand. J Dairy Res. 1998 Aug;65(3):401-11. [PubMed:9718493 ]
  4. Jensen RG, Ferris AM, Lammi-Keefe CJ: The composition of milk fat. J Dairy Sci. 1991 Sep;74(9):3228-43. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78509-3. [PubMed:1779072 ]
  5. Colman E, Fokkink WB, Craninx M, Newbold JR, De Baets B, Fievez V: Effect of induction of subacute ruminal acidosis on milk fat profile and rumen parameters. J Dairy Sci. 2010 Oct;93(10):4759-73. doi: 10.3168/jds.2010-3158. [PubMed:20855010 ]
  6. Keenan TW, Morre DJ, Olson DE, Yunghans WN, Patton S: Biochemical and morphological comparison of plasma membrane and milk fat globule membrane from bovine mammary gland. J Cell Biol. 1970 Jan;44(1):80-93. [PubMed:5409465 ]
  7. Glasser F, Ferlay A, Chilliard Y: Oilseed lipid supplements and fatty acid composition of cow milk: a meta-analysis. J Dairy Sci. 2008 Dec;91(12):4687-703. doi: 10.3168/jds.2008-0987. [PubMed:19038946 ]
  8. Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals (2009). Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals. Characterization of the biochemical variability of bovine milk using metabolomics. Metabolomics (2009) 5:375?386. Metabolomics.
  9. M. Ferrand, B. Huquet. S. Barbey, F. Barillet, F. Faucon, H. Larroque, O. Leray, J.M. Trommenschlager, M. Brochard (2011). M. Ferrand et al. Determination of fatty acid profile in cow's milk using mid-infrared spectrometry: Interest of applying a variable selection by genetic algorithms before a PLS regression. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 106 (2011) 183?189. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems.
  10. Lawrence K. Creamer, Alastair K.H. MacGibbon (1996). Lawrence K. Creamer, Alastair K.H. MacGibbon. Some recent advances in the basic chemistry of milk proteins and lipids. International Dairy J. (1996) 6(6):539-568 doi: 10.1016/0958-6946(96)85309-X. International Dairy Journal.
  11. M.J. Abarghuei, Y. Rouzbehan, A.Z.M Salem, M.J. Zamiri (2014). M.J. Abarghuei, Y. Rouzbehan, A.Z.M Salem, M.J. Zamiri. Nitrogen balance, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows fed pomegranate-peel extract. Livestock Science (2014) 164:72-80 doi: 10.1016/j.livsci.2014.03.021. Livestock Science.
  12. Fooddata+, The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) [Link]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in heparin binding
Specific function:
Hepatic lipase has the capacity to catalyze hydrolysis of phospholipids, mono-, di-, and triglycerides, and acyl-CoA thioesters. It is an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. Hepatic lipase binds heparin (By similarity).
Gene Name:
LIPC
Uniprot ID:
Q3SZ79
Molecular weight:
56826.0
Reactions
TG(16:0/16:0/16:0)[iso] + Water → DG(16:0/16:0/0:0) + Palmitic aciddetails
DG(16:0/16:0/0:0) + Water → Palmitic acid + MG(0:0/16:0/0:0)details
MG(0:0/16:0/0:0) + Water → Glycerol + Palmitic aciddetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities as an acyl carrier protein.
Gene Name:
FASN
Uniprot ID:
Q71SP7
Molecular weight:
274554.0
Reactions
Trans-Hexa-dec-2-enoic acid → Palmitic aciddetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of fatty acids such as long-chain and very long-chain fatty acids to their active form acyl-CoAs for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Can activate diverse saturated, monosaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Gene Name:
ACSBG1
Uniprot ID:
Q2KHW5
Molecular weight:
80585.0
Reactions
Palmitic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Coenzyme A → Palmityl-CoA + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Acts as a acyl-protein thioesterase hydrolyzing fatty acids from S-acylated cysteine residues in proteins such as trimeric G alpha proteins or HRAS (By similarity). Has depalmitoylating activity toward KCNMA1 (By similarity). Acts as a lysophospholipase hydrolyzing various lysophospholipids including lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (lyso-PE), lysophosphatidylinositol (lyso-PI) and lysophosphatidylserine (lyso-PS) (By similarity). Has much higher thioesterase activity than lysophospholipase activity (By similarity). Contributes to the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) during blood coagulation by recognizing and cleaving plasma phospholipids to generate lysophospholipids which in turn act as substrates for ENPP2 to produce LPA (By similarity).
Gene Name:
LYPLA1
Uniprot ID:
Q3MHR0
Molecular weight:
24596.0
General function:
Involved in palmitoyl-(protein) hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Removes thioester-linked fatty acyl groups such as palmitate from modified cysteine residues in proteins or peptides during lysosomal degradation. Prefers acyl chain lengths of 14 to 18 carbons.
Gene Name:
PPT1
Uniprot ID:
P45478
Molecular weight:
34142.0
Reactions
Palmityl-CoA + Water → Palmitic acid + Coenzyme Adetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Critical isomerohydrolase in the retinoid cycle involved in regeneration of 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore of rod and cone opsins. Catalyzes the cleavage and isomerization of all-trans-retinyl fatty acid esters to 11-cis-retinol which is further oxidized by 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase to 11-cis-retinal for use as visual chromophore (PubMed:16096063, PubMed:19805034, PubMed:20100834). Essential for the production of 11-cis retinal for both rod and cone photoreceptors. Also capable of catalyzing the isomerization of lutein to meso-zeaxanthin an eye-specific carotenoid (By similarity). The soluble form binds vitamin A (all-trans-retinol), making it available for LRAT processing to all-trans-retinyl ester. The membrane form, palmitoylated by LRAT, binds all-trans-retinyl esters, making them available for IMH (isomerohydrolase) processing to all-cis-retinol. The soluble form is regenerated by transferring its palmitoyl groups onto 11-cis-retinol, a reaction catalyzed by LRAT (PubMed:15186777).
Gene Name:
RPE65
Uniprot ID:
Q28175
Molecular weight:
60944.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LIPF
Uniprot ID:
Q29458
Molecular weight:
45231.0
Reactions
CE(22:2) + Water → Cholesterol + Palmitic aciddetails