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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:44:16 UTC
Update Date2020-06-02 18:14:09 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0001333
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB01333
Metabolite Identification
Common NameManganese
DescriptionManganese, also known as MN(ii) or MN2+, belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom. Manganese exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and possibly neutral molecule. Manganese exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Manganese is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
MANGANESE (II) ionChEBI
Manganese(II)ChEBI
Manganese, ion (MN2+)ChEBI
Manganous ionChEBI
MN(II)ChEBI
MN(2+)ChEBI
MN2+ChEBI
Chemical FormulaMn
Average Molecular Weight54.938
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight54.938049636
IUPAC Namemanganese(2+) ion
Traditional Namemanganese(2+) ion
CAS Registry Number7439-96-5
SMILES
[Mn++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Mn/q+2
InChI KeyWAEMQWOKJMHJLA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Exogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point1244 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.16ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-6f3891a406ae3fe4f883View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-6f3891a406ae3fe4f883View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-6f3891a406ae3fe4f883View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-c3110d268939143a5f80View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-c3110d268939143a5f80View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-c3110d268939143a5f80View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Brain
  • Hair
  • Liver
  • Longissimus Thoracis Muscle
  • Milk
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Semimembranosus Muscle
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Basal GangliaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BrainExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
HairExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Longissimus Thoracis MuscleDetected and Quantified0.12 +/- 0.02 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified0.6 - 1.6 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Semaghiul Birghil...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified0.546 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified3.64 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Park, Y. W; Juáre...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified0.37 +/- 0.15 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • A. PECHOVÁ et al....
details
MilkDetected and Quantified0.5 +/- 0.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified0.45 +/- 0.02 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified0.50 +/- 0.04 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified0.6 +/- 0.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified2.749 +/- 0.109 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Patricia Cava-Mon...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified3.713 +/- 0.218 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Patricia Cava-Mon...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1.511 +/- 0.0910 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Patricia Cava-Mon...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified3.495 +/- 0.728 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Patricia Cava-Mon...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1.165 +/- 0.0728 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Patricia Cava-Mon...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified3.149 +/- 2.0751 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Patricia Cava-Mon...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1.82 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1.82 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified0.728 - 5.279 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Semaghiul Birghil...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1.456 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1.638 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1.456 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1.82 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1.82 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1.82 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified0.928 - 1.838 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Z. Dobrzański, R....
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified59 +/- 62 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified2.5 +/- 0.7 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Semimembranosus MuscleDetected and Quantified<LOQ nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • The Bovine Metabo...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
HMDB IDHMDB0001333
DrugBank IDDB06757
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB031005
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID25916
KEGG Compound IDC19610
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkManganese
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound27854
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID29035
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Raghib MH, Chan WY, Rennert OM: Comparative biological availability of manganese from extrinsically labelled milk diets using sucking rats as a model. Br J Nutr. 1986 Jan;55(1):49-58. [PubMed:3663578 ]
  2. A. Pechová, L. Pavlata, R. Dvořák, E. Lokajová (2008). A. PECHOVÁ et al. Contents of Zn, Cu, Mn and Se in Milk in Relation to their Concentrations in Blood, Milk Yield and Stage of Lactation in Dairy Cattle. Acta Vet. Brno 2008, 77: 523-531. Acta Vet. Brno.
  3. Semaghiul Birghila, Simona Dobrinas, Gabriela Stanciu and Alina Soceanu (2008). Semaghiul Birghila, Simona Dobrinas, Gabriela Stanciu and Alina Soceanu. Determination of major and minor elements in milk through ICP-AES. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. November/December 2008, Vol.7, No.6, 805-808. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal.
  4. Z. Dobrzański, R. Kołacz, H. Górecka, K. Chojnacka, A. Bartkowiak. (2005). Z. Dobrzański, R. Kołacz, H. Górecka, K. Chojnacka, A. Bartkowiak. 2005. The Content of Microelements and Trace Elements in Raw Milk from Cows in the Silesian Region. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 14(5):685–689. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies.
  5. Park, Y. W; Juárez, Manuela ; Ramos, M.; Haenlein, G. F. W. (2007). Park, Y. W; Juárez, Manuela ; Ramos, M.; Haenlein, G. F. W.. Physico-chemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Res.(2007) 68:88-113 doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.013. Small Ruminant Research.
  6. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
  7. Patricia Cava-Montesinos, M. Luisa Cervera Agustín Pastor Miguel de la Guardia (2005). Patricia Cava-Montesinos, M. Luisa Cervera Agustín Pastor Miguel de la Guardia. 2005. Room temperature acid sonication ICP-MS multielemental analysis of milk.Analytica Chimica Acta Volume 531, Issue 1, Pages 111-123. Analytica Chimica Acta.
  8. Fooddata+, The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) [Link]

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 65 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays a role in many biological processes including regulation of cell growth and survival, cell adhesion, integrin-mediated signaling, cytoskeletal remodeling, cell motility, immune response and axon guidance. Inactive FYN is phosphorylated on its C-terminal tail within the catalytic domain. Following activation by PKA, the protein subsequently associates with PTK2/FAK1, allowing PTK2/FAK1 phosphorylation, activation and targeting to focal adhesions. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and motility through phosphorylation of CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) and CTNND1 (delta-catenin). Regulates cytoskeletal remodeling by phosphorylating several proteins including the actin regulator WAS and the microtubule-associated proteins MAP2 and MAPT. Promotes cell survival by phosphorylating AGAP2/PIKE-A and preventing its apoptotic cleavage. Participates in signal transduction pathways that regulate the integrity of the glomerular slit diaphragm (an essential part of the glomerular filter of the kidney) by phosphorylating several slit diaphragm components including NPHS1, KIRREL1 and TRPC6. Plays a role in neural processes by phosphorylating DPYSL2, a multifunctional adapter protein within the central nervous system, ARHGAP32, a regulator for Rho family GTPases implicated in various neural functions, and SNCA, a small pre-synaptic protein. Participates in the downstream signaling pathways that lead to T-cell differentiation and proliferation following T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Phosphorylates PTK2B/PYK2 in response to T-cell receptor activation. Also participates in negative feedback regulation of TCR signaling through phosphorylation of PAG1, thereby promoting interaction between PAG1 and CSK and recruitment of CSK to lipid rafts. CSK maintains LCK and FYN in an inactive form. Promotes CD28-induced phosphorylation of VAV1. In mast cells, phosphorylates CLNK after activation of immunoglobulin epsilon receptor signaling (By similarity).
Gene Name:
FYN
Uniprot ID:
A0JNB0
Molecular weight:
60718.0
General function:
Involved in activin receptor activity
Specific function:
On ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. Receptor for activin A, activin B and inhibin A. Mediates induction of adipogenesis by GDF6.
Gene Name:
ACVR2A
Uniprot ID:
Q28043
Molecular weight:
57952.0
General function:
Involved in activin receptor activity
Specific function:
Transmembrane serine/threonine kinase activin type-2 receptor forming an activin receptor complex with activin type-1 serine/threonine kinase receptors (ACVR1, ACVR1B or ACVR1c). Transduces the activin signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm and is thus regulating many physiological and pathological processes including neuronal differentiation and neuronal survival, hair follicle development and cycling, FSH production by the pituitary gland, wound healing, extracellular matrix production, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. Activin is also thought to have a paracrine or autocrine role in follicular development in the ovary. Within the receptor complex, the type-2 receptors act as a primary activin receptors (binds activin-A/INHBA, activin-B/INHBB as well as inhibin-A/INHA-INHBA). The type-1 receptors like ACVR1B act as downstream transducers of activin signals. Activin binds to type-2 receptor at the plasma membrane and activates its serine-threonine kinase. The activated receptor type-2 then phosphorylates and activates the type-1 receptor. Once activated, the type-1 receptor binds and phosphorylates the SMAD proteins SMAD2 and SMAD3, on serine residues of the C-terminal tail. Soon after their association with the activin receptor and subsequent phosphorylation, SMAD2 and SMAD3 are released into the cytoplasm where they interact with the common partner SMAD4. This SMAD complex translocates into the nucleus where it mediates activin-induced transcription. Inhibitory SMAD7, which is recruited to ACVR1B through FKBP1A, can prevent the association of SMAD2 and SMAD3 with the activin receptor complex, thereby blocking the activin signal. Activin signal transduction is also antagonized by the binding to the receptor of inhibin-B via the IGSF1 inhibin coreceptor (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACVR2B
Uniprot ID:
Q95126
Molecular weight:
57569.0
General function:
Involved in alkylglycerophosphoethanolamine phosphodies
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes lysophospholipids to produce the signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in extracellular fluids. Major substrate is lysophosphatidylcholine (PubMed:12119361). Also can act on sphingosylphosphorylcholine producing sphingosine-1-phosphate, a modulator of cell motility. Can hydrolyze, in vitro, bis-pNPP, to some extent pNP-TMP, and barely ATP. Involved in several motility-related processes such as angiogenesis and neurite outgrowth. Acts as an angiogenic factor by stimulating migration of smooth muscle cells and microtubule formation. Stimulates migration of melanoma cells, probably via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. May have a role in induction of parturition. Possible involvement in cell proliferation and adipose tissue development. Tumor cell motility-stimulating factor (By similarity). Required for LPA production in activated platelets, cleaves the sn-1 lysophospholipids to generate sn-1 lysophosphatidic acids containing predominantly 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids (By similarity). Shows a preference for the sn-1 to the sn-2 isomer of 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-PAF) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ENPP2
Uniprot ID:
A1A4K5
Molecular weight:
101717.0
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the first and rate-limiting step of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. This is a 2 steps reaction starting with the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the biotin carried by the biotin carboxyl carrier (BCC) domain followed by the transfer of the carboxyl group from carboxylated biotin to acetyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ACACA
Uniprot ID:
Q9TTS3
Molecular weight:
265303.0
General function:
Involved in activin receptor activity, type I
Specific function:
On ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. Receptor for TGF-beta. May also bind activin.
Gene Name:
ACVR1
Uniprot ID:
Q28041
Molecular weight:
57190.0
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. May participate in synthesis of oncofetal fibronectin. Has activity toward Muc1a, Muc2, EA2 and fibronectin peptides (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GALNT6
Uniprot ID:
Q5EA41
Molecular weight:
71138.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Has a broad spectrum of substrates for peptides such as EA2, Muc5AC, Muc1a, Muc1b and Muc7.
Gene Name:
GALNT1
Uniprot ID:
Q07537
Molecular weight:
64192.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes both the phosphorylation of dihydroxyacetone and of glyceraldehyde, and the splitting of ribonucleoside diphosphate-X compounds among which FAD is the best substrate. Represses IFIH1-mediated cellular antiviral response.
Gene Name:
TKFC
Uniprot ID:
Q58DK4
Molecular weight:
59124.0
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis from CDP-choline. It thereby plays a central role in the formation and maintenance of vesicular membranes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CHPT1
Uniprot ID:
Q1LZE6
Molecular weight:
45249.0
General function:
Involved in ethanolaminephosphotransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis from CDP-ethanolamine. It thereby plays a central role in the formation and maintenance of vesicular membranes. Involved in the foramtion of phosphatidylethanolamine via 'Kennedy' pathway (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SELENOI
Uniprot ID:
Q17QM4
Molecular weight:
45214.0
General function:
Involved in 3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP (PubMed:8530505). Specifically regulates nitric-oxide-generated cGMP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PDE5A
Uniprot ID:
Q28156
Molecular weight:
98627.0
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
RNA-binding and decapping enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of the cap structure of snoRNAs and mRNAs in a metal-dependent manner. Part of the U8 snoRNP complex that is required for the accumulation of mature 5.8S and 28S rRNA. Has diphosphatase activity and removes m7G and/or m227G caps from U8 snoRNA and leaves a 5'monophosphate on the RNA. Catalyzes also the cleavage of the cap structure on mRNAs. Does not hydrolyze cap analog structures like 7-methylguanosine nucleoside triphosphate (m7GpppG). Also hydrolysis m7G- and m227G U3-capped RNAs but with less efficiencies. Has broad substrate specificity with manganese or cobalt as cofactor and can act on various RNA species. Binds to the U8 snoRNA; metal is not required for RNA-binding. May play a role in the regulation of snoRNAs and mRNAs degradation. Acts also as a phosphatase; hydrolyzes the non-canonical purine nucleotides inosine diphosphate (IDP) and deoxyinosine diphosphate (dITP) as well as guanosine diphosphate (GDP), deoxyguanosine diphosphate (dGDP), xanthine diphosphate (XDP), inosine triphosphate (ITP) and deoxyinosine triphosphate (ITP) to their respective monophosphate derivatives and does not distinguish between the deoxy- and ribose forms. The order of activity with different substrates is IDP > dIDP >> GDP = dGDP > XDP = ITP = dITP. Binds strongly to GTP, ITP and XTP. Participates in the hydrolysis of dIDP/IDP and probably excludes non-canonical purines from RNA and DNA precursor pools, thus preventing their incorporation into RNA and DNA and avoiding chromosomal lesions.
Gene Name:
NUDT16
Uniprot ID:
A1A4Q9
Molecular weight:
21399.0
General function:
Replication, recombination and repair
Specific function:
Cleaves a beta-phosphate from the diphosphate groups in PP-InsP5 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate), suggesting that it may play a role in signal transduction. Also able to catalyze the hydrolysis of dinucleoside oligophosphates, with Ap6A and Ap5A being the preferred substrates. The major reaction products are ADP and p4a from Ap6A and ADP and ATP from Ap5A. Also able to hydrolyze 5-phosphoribose 1-diphosphate.
Gene Name:
NUDT11
Uniprot ID:
Q58CW0
Molecular weight:
18519.0
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Plays a role in intermediary metabolism and energy production. It may tightly associate or interact with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
Gene Name:
IDH2
Uniprot ID:
Q04467
Molecular weight:
50739.0
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Cleaves DNA at double-stranded (DG)n.(DC)n and at single-stranded (DC)n tracts. In addition to deoxyribonuclease activities, also has ribonuclease (RNase) and RNase H activities. Capable of generating the RNA primers required by DNA polymerase gamma to initiate replication of mitochondrial DNA.
Gene Name:
ENDOG
Uniprot ID:
P38447
Molecular weight:
32262.0
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Regulatory subunit which plays a role in the allosteric regulation of the enzyme catalyzing the decarboxylation of isocitrate (ICT) into alpha-ketoglutarate. The heterodimer composed of the alpha (IDH3A) and beta (IDH3B) subunits and the heterodimer composed of the alpha (IDH3A) and gamma (IDH3G) subunits, have considerable basal activity but the full activity of the heterotetramer (containing two subunits of IDH3A, one of IDH3B and one of IDH3G) requires the assembly and cooperative function of both heterodimers.
Gene Name:
IDH3G
Uniprot ID:
Q58CP0
Molecular weight:
42863.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Polynucleotide kinase that can phosphorylate the 5'-hydroxyl groups of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and double-stranded DNA:RNA hybrids. dsRNA is phosphorylated more efficiently than dsDNA, and the RNA component of a DNA:RNA hybrid is phosphorylated more efficiently than the DNA component. Plays a key role in both tRNA splicing and mRNA 3'-end formation. Component of the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex: phosphorylates the 5'-terminus of the tRNA 3'-exon during tRNA splicing; this phosphorylation event is a prerequisite for the subsequent ligation of the two exon halves and the production of a mature tRNA. Its role in tRNA splicing and maturation is required for cerebellar development. Component of the pre-mRNA cleavage complex II (CF-II), which seems to be required for mRNA 3'-end formation. Also phosphorylates the 5'-terminus of exogenously introduced short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which is a necessary prerequisite for their incorporation into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). However, endogenous siRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) that are produced by the cleavage of dsRNA precursors by DICER1 already contain a 5'-phosphate group, so this protein may be dispensible for normal RNA-mediated gene silencing (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CLP1
Uniprot ID:
A2VE01
Molecular weight:
47630.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Enzyme with a broad specificity. Dephosphorylates PRKAA1 and PRKAA2. Inhibits TBK1-mediated antiviral signaling by dephosphorylating it at 'Ser-172'. Plays an important role in the termination of TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappa-B activation through dephosphorylating and inactivating IKBKB/IKKB (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPM1B
Uniprot ID:
O62830
Molecular weight:
53431.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Protein phosphatase that may play a role in regulation of cell cycle progression via dephosphorylation of its substrates whose appropriate phosphorylation states might be crucial for cell proliferation. Selectively associates with integrin linked kinase (ILK), to modulate cell adhesion and growth factor signaling. Inhibits the ILK-GSK3B signaling axis and may play an important role in inhibiting oncogenic transformation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ILKAP
Uniprot ID:
Q0IIF0
Molecular weight:
40622.0
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Plays a structural role to facilitate the assembly and ensure the full activity of the enzyme catalyzing the decarboxylation of isocitrate (ICT) into alpha-ketoglutarate. The heterodimer composed of the alpha (IDH3A) and beta (IDH3B) subunits and the heterodimer composed of the alpha (IDH3A) and gamma (IDH3G) subunits, have considerable basal activity but the full activity of the heterotetramer (containing two subunits of IDH3A, one of IDH3B and one of IDH3G) requires the assembly and cooperative function of both heterodimers.
Gene Name:
IDH3B
Uniprot ID:
O77784
Molecular weight:
42497.0
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Cleaves P(1)-P(3)-bis(5'-adenosyl) triphosphate (Ap3A) to yield AMP and ADP. Can also hydrolyze P(1)-P(4)-bis(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphate (Ap4A), but has extremely low activity with ATP. Modulates transcriptional activation by CTNNB1 and thereby contributes to regulate the expression of genes essential for cell proliferation and survival, such as CCND1 and BIRC5. Plays a role in the induction of apoptosis via SRC and AKT1 signaling pathways. Inhibits MDM2-mediated proteasomal degradation of p53/TP53 and thereby plays a role in p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis depends on the ability of FHIT to bind P(1)-P(3)-bis(5'-adenosyl) triphosphate or related compounds, but does not require its catalytic activity. Functions as tumor suppressor (By similarity).
Gene Name:
FHIT
Uniprot ID:
Q1KZG4
Molecular weight:
16951.0
General function:
Replication, recombination and repair
Specific function:
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) endoribonuclease playing a central role in short dsRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing. Cleaves naturally occurring long dsRNAs and short hairpin pre-microRNAs (miRNA) into fragments of twenty-one to twenty-three nucleotides with 3' overhang of two nucleotides, producing respectively short interfering RNAs (siRNA) and mature microRNAs. SiRNAs and miRNAs serve as guide to direct the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to complementary RNAs to degrade them or prevent their translation. Gene silencing mediated by siRNAs, also called RNA interference, controls the elimination of transcripts from mobile and repetitive DNA elements of the genome but also the degradation of exogenous RNA of viral origin for instance. The miRNA pathway on the other side is a mean to specifically regulate the expression of target genes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DICER1
Uniprot ID:
Q6TUI4
Molecular weight:
218258.0
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Probably mediates the hydrolysis of some nucleoside diphosphate derivatives.
Gene Name:
NUDT17
Uniprot ID:
A4FUG7
Molecular weight:
32389.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Regulates the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and is essential for cellular survival and development.
Gene Name:
PPM1K
Uniprot ID:
Q2PC20
Molecular weight:
41151.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Presumably involved in the processing and regular turnover of intracellular proteins. Catalyzes the removal of unsubstituted N-terminal amino acids from various peptides.
Gene Name:
LAP3
Uniprot ID:
P00727
Molecular weight:
56289.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Transmembrane serine/threonine kinase forming with the TGF-beta type II serine/threonine kinase receptor, TGFBR2, the non-promiscuous receptor for the TGF-beta cytokines TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3. Transduces the TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm and is thus regulating a plethora of physiological and pathological processes including cell cycle arrest in epithelial and hematopoietic cells, control of mesenchymal cell proliferation and differentiation, wound healing, extracellular matrix production, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. The formation of the receptor complex composed of 2 TGFBR1 and 2 TGFBR2 molecules symmetrically bound to the cytokine dimer results in the phosphorylation and the activation of TGFBR1 by the constitutively active TGFBR2. Activated TGFBR1 phosphorylates SMAD2 which dissociates from the receptor and interacts with SMAD4. The SMAD2-SMAD4 complex is subsequently translocated to the nucleus where it modulates the transcription of the TGF-beta-regulated genes. This constitutes the canonical SMAD-dependent TGF-beta signaling cascade. Also involved in non-canonical, SMAD-independent TGF-beta signaling pathways. For instance, TGFBR1 induces TRAF6 autoubiquitination which in turn results in MAP3K7 ubiquitination and activation to trigger apoptosis. Also regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition through a SMAD-independent signaling pathway through PARD6A phosphorylation and activation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TGFBR1
Uniprot ID:
O46680
Molecular weight:
55814.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PPM1G
Uniprot ID:
P79126
Molecular weight:
58607.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Acts as a suppressor of the SAPK signaling pathways by associating with and dephosphorylating MAP3K7/TAK1 and MAP3K5, and by attenuating the association between MAP3K7/TAK1 and MAP2K4 or MAP2K6.
Gene Name:
PPM1L
Uniprot ID:
A5PJZ2
Molecular weight:
41042.0
General function:
Replication, recombination and repair
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes NAD(P)H to NMNH and AMP (2',5'-ADP), and diadenosine diphosphate to AMP. Has also activity towards NAD(P)(+), ADP-ribose and diadenosine triphosphate. May act to regulate the concentration of peroxisomal nicotinamide nucleotide cofactors required for oxidative metabolism in this organelle.
Gene Name:
NUDT12
Uniprot ID:
Q29RH3
Molecular weight:
50119.0
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
May act as a corneal epithelial crystallin and may be involved in maintaining corneal epithelial transparency.
Gene Name:
IDH1
Uniprot ID:
Q9XSG3
Molecular weight:
46785.0
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Catalytic subunit of the enzyme which catalyzes the decarboxylation of isocitrate (ICT) into alpha-ketoglutarate. The heterodimer composed of the alpha (IDH3A) and beta (IDH3B) subunits and the heterodimer composed of the alpha (IDH3A) and gamma (IDH3G) subunits, have considerable basal activity but the full activity of the heterotetramer (containing two subunits of IDH3A, one of IDH3B and one of IDH3G) requires the assembly and cooperative function of both heterodimers.
Gene Name:
IDH3A
Uniprot ID:
P41563
Molecular weight:
39668.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Enzyme with a broad specificity. Negatively regulates TGF-beta signaling through dephosphorylating SMAD2 and SMAD3, resulting in their dissociation from SMAD4, nuclear export of the SMADs and termination of the TGF-beta-mediated signaling (By similarity). Dephosphorylates PRKAA1 and PRKAA2. Plays an important role in the termination of TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappa-B activation through dephosphorylating and inactivating IKBKB/IKKB (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPM1A
Uniprot ID:
O62829
Molecular weight:
42530.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ARG1
Uniprot ID:
Q2KJ64
Molecular weight:
35009.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
May play a role in the regulation of extra-urea cycle arginine metabolism and also in down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Extrahepatic arginase functions to regulate L-arginine bioavailability to nitric oxid synthase (NOS). Arginine metabolism is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses. Seems to be involved in negative regulation of the survival capacity of activated T cells. May suppress inflammation-related signaling in asthmatic airway epithelium. May play a role in promoting prenatal immune suppression. Regulates RPS6KB1 signaling, which promotes endothelial cell senescence and inflammation and implicates NOS3/eNOS dysfunction. Can inhibit endothelial autophagy independently of its enzymatic activity implicating mTORC2 signaling. Involved in vascular smooth muscle cell senescence and apoptosis independently of its enzymatic activity.
Gene Name:
ARG2
Uniprot ID:
Q58DL1
Molecular weight:
38616.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Destroys superoxide anion radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name:
SOD2
Uniprot ID:
P41976
Molecular weight:
24638.0
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GART
Uniprot ID:
Q59A32
Molecular weight:
107907.0
General function:
Involved in alpha-tubulin binding
Specific function:
The Golgi complex form catalyzes the production of lactose in the lactating mammary gland and could also be responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids.
Gene Name:
B4GALT1
Uniprot ID:
P08037
Molecular weight:
44843.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in the second. Catalyzes in a tissue specific manner, the initial reactions of glucose (liver, kidney) and lipid (adipose tissue, liver, brain) synthesis from pyruvate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PC
Uniprot ID:
Q29RK2
Molecular weight:
129698.0
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Regulates cataplerosis and anaplerosis, the processes that control the levels of metabolic intermediates in the citric acid cycle. At low glucose levels, it catalyzes the cataplerotic conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle. At high glucose levels, it catalyzes the anaplerotic conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate.
Gene Name:
PCK1
Uniprot ID:
Q8HYZ4
Molecular weight:
69353.0
General function:
Involved in beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-
Specific function:
Responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids.
Gene Name:
B4GALT3
Uniprot ID:
Q5EA87
Molecular weight:
44371.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Contributes to the degradation of bradykinin. Catalyzes the removal of a penultimate prolyl residue from the N-termini of peptides, such as Arg-Pro-Pro (By similarity).
Gene Name:
XPNPEP1
Uniprot ID:
Q1JPJ2
Molecular weight:
69790.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
PP2A is the major phosphatase for microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase. Cooperates with SGO2 to protect centromeric cohesin from separase-mediated cleavage in oocytes specifically during meiosis I. Activates RAF1 by dephosphorylating it at 'Ser-259' (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPP2CA
Uniprot ID:
P67774
Molecular weight:
35594.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Protein phosphatase that associates with over 200 regulatory proteins to form highly specific holoenzymes which dephosphorylate hundreds of biological targets. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is essential for cell division, and participates in the regulation of glycogen metabolism, muscle contractility and protein synthesis. Involved in regulation of ionic conductances and long-term synaptic plasticity. May play an important role in dephosphorylating substrates such as the postsynaptic density-associated Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II. Component of the PTW/PP1 phosphatase complex, which plays a role in the control of chromatin structure and cell cycle progression during the transition from mitosis into interphase. Regulates NEK2 function in terms of kinase activity and centrosome number and splitting, both in the presence and absence of radiation-induced DNA damage. Regulator of neural tube and optic fissure closure, and enteric neural crest cell (ENCCs) migration during development. In balance with CSNK1D and CSNK1E, determines the circadian period length, through the regulation of the speed and rhythmicity of PER1 and PER2 phosphorylation. May dephosphorylate CSNK1D and CSNK1E (By similarity). Dephosphorylates CENPA (By similarity). Dephosphorylates the 'Ser-139' residue of ATG16L1 causing dissociation of ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 complex, thereby inhibiting autophagy (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPP1CA
Uniprot ID:
Q3T0E7
Molecular weight:
37512.0
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GALNT6
Uniprot ID:
A6H6Z5
Molecular weight:
71152.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GALNT13
Uniprot ID:
Q08DM9
Molecular weight:
64063.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Protein phosphatase that associates with over 200 regulatory proteins to form highly specific holoenzymes which dephosphorylate hundreds of biological targets. Protein phosphatase (PP1) is essential for cell division, it participates in the regulation of glycogen metabolism, muscle contractility and protein synthesis. Involved in regulation of ionic conductances and long-term synaptic plasticity. Component of the PTW/PP1 phosphatase complex, which plays a role in the control of chromatin structure and cell cycle progression during the transition from mitosis into interphase. In balance with CSNK1D and CSNK1E, determines the circadian period length, through the regulation of the speed and rhythmicity of PER1 and PER2 phosphorylation. May dephosphorylate CSNK1D and CSNK1E (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPP1CB
Uniprot ID:
Q3SWW9
Molecular weight:
37187.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Protein phosphatase that is involved in many processes such as microtubule organization at centrosomes, maturation of spliceosomal snRNPs, apoptosis, DNA repair, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha signaling, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase MAPK8, regulation of histone acetylation, DNA damage checkpoint signaling, NF-kappa-B activation and cell migration. The PPP4C-PPP4R1 PP4 complex may play a role in dephosphorylation and regulation of HDAC3. The PPP4C-PPP4R2-PPP4R3A PP4 complex specifically dephosphorylates H2AX phosphorylated on Ser-140 (gamma-H2AX) generated during DNA replication and required for DNA double strand break repair. Dephosphorylates NDEL1 at CDK1 phosphorylation sites and negatively regulates CDK1 activity in interphase. In response to DNA damage, catalyzes RPA2 dephosphorylation, an essential step for DNA repair since it allows the efficient RPA2-mediated recruitment of RAD51 to chromatin.
Gene Name:
PPP4C
Uniprot ID:
A6H772
Molecular weight:
35080.0
General function:
RNA processing and modification
Specific function:
3'-to-5' exoribonuclease specific for small oligoribonucleotides. Active on small (primarily
Gene Name:
REXO2
Uniprot ID:
A2VE52
Molecular weight:
26885.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Protein phosphatase that associates with over 200 regulatory proteins to form highly specific holoenzymes which dephosphorylate hundreds of biological targets. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is essential for cell division, and participates in the regulation of glycogen metabolism, muscle contractility and protein synthesis. Dephosphorylates RPS6KB1. Involved in regulation of ionic conductances and long-term synaptic plasticity. May play an important role in dephosphorylating substrates such as the postsynaptic density-associated Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II. Component of the PTW/PP1 phosphatase complex, which plays a role in the control of chromatin structure and cell cycle progression during the transition from mitosis into interphase. In balance with CSNK1D and CSNK1E, determines the circadian period length, through the regulation of the speed and rhythmicity of PER1 and PER2 phosphorylation. May dephosphorylate CSNK1D and CSNK1E (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPP1CC
Uniprot ID:
P61287
Molecular weight:
36984.0

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 65 proteins in total.