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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:51:19 UTC
Update Date2020-05-21 16:29:07 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0002111
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB02111
Metabolite Identification
Common NameWater
DescriptionWater, also known as dihydrogen oxide or [OH2], belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'. Water is a drug which is used for diluting or dissolving drugs for intravenous, intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, according to instructions of the manufacturer of the drug to be administered [fda label]. Water exists as a liquid, possibly soluble (in water), and an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa) molecule. Water exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
[OH2]ChEBI
AcquaChEBI
AguaChEBI
AquaChEBI
BOUND waterChEBI
DihydridooxygenChEBI
Dihydrogen oxideChEBI
eauChEBI
H2OChEBI
HOHChEBI
Hydrogen hydroxideChEBI
WasserChEBI
Purified waterKegg
Purified water in containersKegg
Water, purifiedKegg
Sterile purified water in containersKegg
Water for injectionKegg
Water for injection in containersKegg
Sterile waterKegg
SteamHMDB
Hydrogen oxideHMDB
Chemical FormulaH2O
Average Molecular Weight18.0153
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight18.010564686
IUPAC Namewater
Traditional Namewater
CAS Registry Number7732-18-5
SMILES
O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/H2O/h1H2
InChI KeyXLYOFNOQVPJJNP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous other non metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Exogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi
  • Lysosome
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point0 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility55.5 mol/LNot Available
LogP-1.38HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area25.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity3.7 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.51 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-940497ad1005c84fc1f1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-0006-0940000000-08a1813d85727d668cf4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-0a4l-0980000000-5b109ff45e0e5e5051aeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-1a741e1ffb75284635fcView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-1a741e1ffb75284635fcView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-1a741e1ffb75284635fcView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-a2a06393708ba68baab0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-a2a06393708ba68baab0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-a2a06393708ba68baab0View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-014i-9000000000-f7ee14225b4277f6218cView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi
  • Lysosome
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Milk
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
All TissuesExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
MilkDetected and Quantified48664190.99 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified48697496.02 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified49913129.4 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified50401603.08 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified48958385.37 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified49258130.59 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified49852070.19 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified49913129.4 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified49602282.5 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified50168467.91 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified50423806.43 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified50423806.43 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified48675292.67 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified48686394.34 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified49324740.64 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified48686394.34 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified49519019.94 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified49519019.94 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified48919529.51 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified48919529.51 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
HMDB IDHMDB0002111
DrugBank IDDB09145
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB030900
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID937
KEGG Compound IDC00001
BioCyc IDWATER
BiGG ID33474
Wikipedia LinkWater
METLIN ID3194
PubChem Compound962
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15377
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. USDA Food Composition Databases [Link]

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 161 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of C19 androgens, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (androstenedione) and testosterone to the C18 estrogens, estrone and estradiol, respectively. Catalyzes three successive oxidations of C19 androgens: two conventional oxidations at C19 yielding 19-hydroxy and 19-oxo/19-aldehyde derivatives, followed by a third oxidative aromatization step that involves C1-beta hydrogen abstraction combined with cleavage of the C10-C19 bond to yield a phenolic A ring and formic acid. Alternatively, the third oxidative reaction yields a 19-norsteroid and formic acid. Converts dihydrotestosterone to delta1,10-dehydro 19-nordihydrotestosterone and may play a role in homeostasis of this potent androgen. Also displays 2-hydroxylase activity toward estrone. Mechanistically, uses molecular oxygen inserting one oxygen atom into a substrate, and reducing the second into a water molecule, with two electrons provided by NADPH via cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR; NADPH-ferrihemoprotein reductase).
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P46194
Molecular weight:
58090.0
Reactions
Androstenedione + Oxygen + Reduced flavoprotein → 19-Hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione + Water + Oxidized flavoproteindetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase involved in the biosynthesis of adrenal corticoids. Catalyzes the hydroxylation of carbon hydrogen bond at 11-beta position of 11-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone/21-hydroxyprogesterone yielding cortisol or corticosterone, respectively. Mechanistically, uses molecular oxygen inserting one oxygen atom into a substrate and reducing the second into a water molecule. Two electrons are provided by NADPH via a two-protein mitochondrial transfer system comprising flavoprotein FDXR (adrenodoxin/ferredoxin reductase) and nonheme iron-sulfur protein FDX1 or FDX2 (adrenodoxin/ferredoxin).
Gene Name:
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID:
P15150
Molecular weight:
57847.0
Reactions
Deoxycorticosterone + Oxygen + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin → Corticosterone + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxindetails
Progesterone + Oxygen + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin → 11b-Hydroxyprogesterone + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxindetails
17-Hydroxyprogesterone + Oxygen + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin → 21-Deoxycortisol + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxindetails
Cortexolone + Oxygen + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin → Cortisol + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxindetails
17a,21-Dihydroxypreg-nenolone + Oxygen + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin → 11b,17a,21-Trihydroxypreg-nenolone + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxindetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase involved in sterol biosynthesis. Catalyzes 14-alpha demethylation of lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol likely through sequential oxidative conversion of 14-alpha methyl group to hydroxymethyl, then to carboxylaldehyde, followed by the formation of the delta 14,15 double bond in the sterol core and concomitant release of formic acid. Mechanistically, uses molecular oxygen inserting one oxygen atom into a substrate, and reducing the second into a water molecule, with two electrons provided by NADPH via cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR; NADPH-ferrihemoprotein reductase).
Gene Name:
CYP51A1
Uniprot ID:
Q4PJW3
Molecular weight:
56596.0
Reactions
Lanosterin + 3 Oxygen + 3 NADPH → 4,4-Dimethylcholesta-8,14,24-trienol + Formic acid +3 NADP +4 Waterdetails
24-Hydroxycholesterol + NADPH + Oxygen → (24R)-Cholest-5-ene-3-beta,7-alpha,24-triol + NADP + Waterdetails
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. Promotes growth of cells.
Gene Name:
CAT
Uniprot ID:
P00432
Molecular weight:
59915.0
Reactions
2 Hydrogen peroxide → Oxygen +2 Waterdetails
Ethanol + Hydrogen peroxide → Acetaldehyde +2 Waterdetails
2 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid + Oxygen → Cinnavalininate +2 Waterdetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A28
Uniprot ID:
P79102
Molecular weight:
58152.0
Reactions
6-trans-Leukotriene B4 + NADPH + Oxygen → 20-Hydroxy-leukotriene B4 + NADP + Waterdetails
Arachidonic acid + NADPH + Oxygen → 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid + NADP + Waterdetails
Cholesterol + NADPH + Oxygen → 24-Hydroxycholesterol + NADP + Waterdetails
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is implicated in vascular smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-mediated signal transduction pathway. NO mediates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in coronary vessels and promotes blood clotting through the activation of platelets.
Gene Name:
NOS3
Uniprot ID:
P29473
Molecular weight:
133287.0
Reactions
2 L-Arginine + 3 NADPH + 4 Oxygen →2 N-(o)-Hydroxyarginine +2 Nitric oxide +3 NADP +4 Waterdetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the isomerization of prostaglandin H2 to prostacyclin (= prostaglandin I2).
Gene Name:
PTGIS
Uniprot ID:
Q29626
Molecular weight:
56629.0
Reactions
7a-Hydroxy-cholestene-3-one + NADPH + Oxygen → 7a,12a-Dihydroxy-cholestene-3-one + NADP + Waterdetails
Cholesterol + 3 NADPH + 3 Oxygen → 27-Hydroxycholesterol +3 NADP +4 Waterdetails
27-Hydroxycholesterol + NADPH + Oxygen → 7-a,27-dihydroxycholesterol + NADP + Waterdetails
3beta-Hydroxy-5-cholestenoic acid + NADPH + Oxygen → 3 beta,7 alpha-Dihydroxy-5-cholestenoate + NADP + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SUOX
Uniprot ID:
Q3MHX0
Molecular weight:
60501.0
Reactions
Sulfite + Oxygen + Water → Sulfate + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase involved in corticoid and androgen biosynthesis. Catalyzes 17-alpha hydroxylation of C21 steroids, which is common for both pathways. A second oxidative step, required only for androgen synthesis, involves an acyl-carbon cleavage. The 17-alpha hydroxy intermediates, as part of adrenal glucocorticoids biosynthesis pathway, are precursors of cortisol. Hydroxylates steroid hormones, pregnenolone and progesterone to form 17-alpha hydroxy metabolites, followed by the cleavage of the C17-C20 bond to form C19 steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Has 16-alpha hydroxylase activity. Catalyzes 16-alpha hydroxylation of 17-alpha hydroxy pregnenolone, followed by the cleavage of the C17-C20 bond to form 16-alpha-hydroxy DHEA. Also 16-alpha hydroxylates androgens, relevant for estriol synthesis. Mechanistically, uses molecular oxygen inserting one oxygen atom into a substrate, and reducing the second into a water molecule, with two electrons provided by NADPH via cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR; NADPH-ferrihemoprotein reductase).
Gene Name:
CYP17A1
Uniprot ID:
P05185
Molecular weight:
57244.0
Reactions
21-Deoxycortisol + Water + Acceptor → 11b-Hydroxyprogesterone + Oxygen + Reduced acceptordetails
Progesterone + Oxygen + Reduced acceptor → 17-Hydroxyprogesterone + Water + Acceptordetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2D14
Uniprot ID:
Q01361
Molecular weight:
56083.0
Reactions
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 19(S)-HETE + Waterdetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and its conjugates. Mechanistically, uses molecular oxygen inserting one oxygen atom into a substrate, and reducing the second into a water molecule, with two electrons provided by NADPH via cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR; NADPH-ferrihemoprotein reductase). Acts as an omega and omega-1 hydroxylase for arachidonic acid and possibly for other long chain fatty acids. May modulate the arachidonic acid signaling pathway and play a role in other fatty acid signaling processes. May downregulate the biological activities of N-arachidonoyl-serotonin, an endocannabinoid that has anti-nociceptive effects through inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase FAAH, TRPV1 receptor and T-type calcium channels. Catalyzes C-2 oxidation of the indole ring of N-arachidonoyl-serotonin forming a less active product 2-oxo-N-arachidonoyl-serotonin.
Gene Name:
CYP2U1
Uniprot ID:
Q0IIF9
Molecular weight:
61997.0
Reactions
Melatonin + Oxygen + Reduced flavoprotein → 6-Hydroxymelatonin + Water + Oxidized flavoproteindetails
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 19(S)-HETE + Waterdetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that catalyzes the side-chain hydroxylation and cleavage of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the precursor of most steroid hormones (PubMed:11412116). Catalyzes three sequential oxidation reactions of cholesterol, namely the hydroxylation at C22 followed with the hydroxylation at C20 to yield 20R,22R-hydroxycholesterol that is further cleaved between C20 and C22 to yield the C21-steroid pregnenolone and 4-methylpentanal (PubMed:11412116). Mechanistically, uses molecular oxygen inserting one oxygen atom into a substrate and reducing the second into a water molecule. Two electrons are provided by NADPH via a two-protein mitochondrial transfer system comprising flavoprotein FDXR (adrenodoxin/ferredoxin reductase) and nonheme iron-sulfur protein FDX1 or FDX2 (adrenodoxin/ferredoxin) (PubMed:11412116).
Gene Name:
CYP11A1
Uniprot ID:
P00189
Molecular weight:
60333.0
Reactions
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestane + 3 NADPH + 3 Oxygen → 3 alpha,7 alpha,26-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholestane +3 NADP +3 Waterdetails
5-b-Cholestane-3a ,7a ,12a-triol + 3 NADPH + 3 Oxygen → 27-Deoxy-5b-cyprinol +3 NADP +4 Waterdetails
27-Deoxy-5b-cyprinol + 3 NADPH + 3 Oxygen → 3a,7a,12a-Trihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al +3 NADP +4 Waterdetails
27-Hydroxycholesterol + 3 NADPH + 3 Oxygen → 3beta-Hydroxy-5-cholestenoic acid +3 NADP +4 Waterdetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Specifically catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids. Required for the adrenal synthesis of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids.
Gene Name:
CYP21
Uniprot ID:
P00191
Molecular weight:
56077.0
Reactions
11b-Hydroxyprogesterone + Oxygen + Reduced acceptor → Corticosterone + Water + Acceptordetails
21-Deoxycortisol + Oxygen + Reduced acceptor → Cortisol + Water + Acceptordetails
Progesterone + Oxygen + Reduced acceptor → Deoxycorticosterone + Water + Acceptordetails
17-Hydroxyprogesterone + Oxygen + Reduced acceptor → Cortexolone + Water + Acceptordetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase involved in the metabolism of fatty acids. Mechanistically, uses molecular oxygen inserting one oxygen atom into a substrate, and reducing the second into a water molecule, with two electrons provided by NADPH via cytochrome P450 reductase (NADPH--hemoprotein reductase). Catalyzes the hydroxylation of carbon-hydrogen bonds. Hydroxylates fatty acids specifically at the omega-1 position displaying the highest catalytic activity for saturated fatty acids. May be involved in the oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
O18963
Molecular weight:
56827.0
Reactions
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 14,15-epoxy-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid + Waterdetails
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 11,12-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid + Waterdetails
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 8,9-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid + Waterdetails
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 5,6-Epoxy-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid + Waterdetails
General function:
Cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning
Specific function:
The production of the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) is mediated by activated phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes.
Gene Name:
PLCB1
Uniprot ID:
P10894
Molecular weight:
138715.0
Reactions
PIP2 + Water → DG + IP3details
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate + Water → 1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycerol + Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Mediates the production of the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). Plays an important role in the regulation of intracellular signaling cascades. Becomes activated in response to ligand-mediated activation of receptor-type tyrosine kinases, such as PDGFRA, PDGFRB, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. Plays a role in actin reorganization and cell migration (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PLCG1
Uniprot ID:
P08487
Molecular weight:
148313.0
Reactions
PIP2 + Water → DG + IP3details
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes cerebroside sulfate.
Gene Name:
ARSA
Uniprot ID:
Q08DD1
Molecular weight:
53807.0
Reactions
3-O-Sulfogalactosylceramide (d18:1/24:0) + Water → Galactosylceramide (d18:1/16:0) + Sulfatedetails
DHEA sulfate + Water → Dehydroepiandrosterone + Sulfatedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of serine to glycine accompanied with the production of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, an essential intermediate for purine biosynthesis. Serine provides the major source of folate one-carbon in cells by catalyzing the transfer of one carbon from serine to tetrahydrofolate. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway via its role in glycine and tetrahydrofolate metabolism: thymidylate biosynthesis is required to prevent uracil accumulation in mtDNA. Also required for mitochondrial translation by producing 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate; 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate providing methyl donors to produce the taurinomethyluridine base at the wobble position of some mitochondrial tRNAs. Associates with mitochondrial DNA. In addition to its role in mitochondria, also plays a role in the deubiquitination of target proteins as component of the BRISC complex: required for IFNAR1 deubiquitination by the BRISC complex.
Gene Name:
SHMT2
Uniprot ID:
Q3SZ20
Molecular weight:
55605.0
Reactions
5,10-Methylene-THF + Glycine + Water → Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Serinedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Interconversion of serine and glycine.
Gene Name:
SHMT1
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9P9
Molecular weight:
52978.0
Reactions
L-Serine + Tetrahydrofolic acid → Glycine + 5,10-Methylene-THF + Waterdetails
Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Serine → 5,10-Methylene-THF + Glycine + Waterdetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Cell adhesion protein that participates in lymphocyte recirculation by mediating the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells in an L-selectin-independent fashion. Has a monoamine oxidase activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AOC3
Uniprot ID:
Q9TTK6
Molecular weight:
84500.0
Reactions
1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water → 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Histamine + Water + Oxygen → Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PBG into the hydroxymethylbilane pre-uroporphyrinogen in several discrete steps.
Gene Name:
HMBS
Uniprot ID:
Q2KIN5
Molecular weight:
39515.0
Reactions
4 Porphobilinogen + Water → Hydroxymethylbilane +4 Ammoniadetails
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes an early step in the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles. Binds two molecules of 5-aminolevulinate per subunit, each at a distinct site, and catalyzes their condensation to form porphobilinogen (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALAD
Uniprot ID:
Q58DK5
Molecular weight:
36081.0
Reactions
5-Aminolevulinic acid → Porphobilinogen +2 Waterdetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Synthesis and degradation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.
Gene Name:
PFKFB1
Uniprot ID:
P49872
Molecular weight:
54657.0
Reactions
D-Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate + Water → Fructose 6-phosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in 5'-nucleotidase activity
Specific function:
May have a critical role in the maintenance of a constant composition of intracellular purine/pyrimidine nucleotides in cooperation with other nucleotidases. Preferentially hydrolyzes inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and other purine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
NT5C2
Uniprot ID:
O46411
Molecular weight:
64841.0
Reactions
2'-Deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate + Water → Deoxyguanosine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Guanosine monophosphate + Water → Guanosine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Xanthylic acid + Water → Xanthosine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Inosinic acid + Water → Inosine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Deoxyadenosine monophosphate + Water → Deoxyadenosine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Nicotinamide riboside + Hydrogen phosphate → Nicotinamide ribotide + Waterdetails
Nicotinic acid mononucleotide + Water → Nicotinate D-ribonucleoside + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Uridine 5'-monophosphate + Water → Uridine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
dCMP + Water → Deoxycytidine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
5-Thymidylic acid + Water → Thymidine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACYP1
Uniprot ID:
P41500
Molecular weight:
11432.0
Reactions
Acetylphosphate + Water → Acetic acid + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Canalicular ectonucleoside NTPDase responsible for the main hepatic NTPDase activity. Ectonucleoside NTPDases catalyze the hydrolysis of gamma- and beta-phosphate residues of nucleotides, playing a central role in concentration of extracellular nucleotides. Has activity toward ATP, ADP, UTP and UDP, but not toward AMP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ENTPD8
Uniprot ID:
A0JND9
Molecular weight:
53240.0
Reactions
IDP + Water → Inosinic acid + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Inosine triphosphate + Water → IDP + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Water → Guanosine diphosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in glucose-6-phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the endoplasmic reticulum. Forms with the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (SLC37A4/G6PT) the complex responsible for glucose production through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Hence, it is the key enzyme in homeostatic regulation of blood glucose levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
G6PC
Uniprot ID:
Q29RU6
Molecular weight:
40827.0
Reactions
Glucose 1-phosphate + Water → D-Glucose + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Glucose 6-phosphate + Water → D-Glucose + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Alpha-D-Glucose + Hydrogen phosphate → Glucose 6-phosphate + Waterdetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in the presence of divalent cations, acting as a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis. Plays a role in regulating glucose sensing and insulin secretion of pancreatic beta-cells. Appears to modulate glycerol gluconeogenesis in liver. Important regulator of appetite and adiposity; increased expression of the protein in liver after nutrient excess increases circulating satiety hormones and reduces appetite-stimulating neuropeptides and thus seems to provide a feedback mechanism to limit weight gain.
Gene Name:
FBP1
Uniprot ID:
Q3SZB7
Molecular weight:
36728.0
Reactions
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + Water → Fructose 6-phosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Converts adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) and 3'(2')-phosphoadenosine 5'- phosphate (PAP) to AMP. Has 1000-fold lower activity towards inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (Ins(1,4)P2) and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4)P3), but does not hydrolyze Ins(1)P, Ins(3,4)P2, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 or InsP6 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
BPNT1
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZCK3
Molecular weight:
33328.0
Reactions
Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate + Water → Adenosine phosphosulfate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Has nucleotide phosphatase activity towards ATP, GTP, CTP, TTP and UTP. Hydrolyzes nucleoside diphosphates with lower efficiency (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NTPCR
Uniprot ID:
Q1LZ78
Molecular weight:
20682.0
Reactions
Thiamine pyrophosphate + Water → Thiamine monophosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of either pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) or pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) into pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP).
Gene Name:
PNPO
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9K3
Molecular weight:
30366.0
Reactions
Pyridoxamine + Water + Oxygen → Pyridoxal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + Water + Oxygen → Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Protein serine phosphatase that dephosphorylates 'Ser-3' in cofilin and probably also dephosphorylates phospho-serine residues in DSTN. Regulates cofilin-dependent actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Required for normal progress through mitosis and normal cytokinesis. Does not dephosphorylate phospho-threonines in LIMK1. Does not dephosphorylate peptides containing phospho-tyrosine (PubMed:15580268). Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) phosphatase, which also catalyzes the dephosphorylation of pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP), with order of substrate preference PLP > PNP > PMP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PDXP
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZBF9
Molecular weight:
31749.0
Reactions
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + Water → Pyridoxal + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate + Water → Pyridoxine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in heparin binding
Specific function:
Hepatic lipase has the capacity to catalyze hydrolysis of phospholipids, mono-, di-, and triglycerides, and acyl-CoA thioesters. It is an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. Hepatic lipase binds heparin (By similarity).
Gene Name:
LIPC
Uniprot ID:
Q3SZ79
Molecular weight:
56826.0
Reactions
TG(16:0/16:0/16:0)[iso] + Water → DG(16:0/16:0/0:0) + Palmitic aciddetails
DG(16:0/16:0/0:0) + Water → Palmitic acid + MG(0:0/16:0/0:0)details
MG(0:0/16:0/0:0) + Water → Glycerol + Palmitic aciddetails
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Plays a role in valine and pyrimidine metabolism. Binds fatty acyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ALDH6A1
Uniprot ID:
Q07536
Molecular weight:
58063.0
Reactions
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Water + NAD + Coenzyme A → Propionyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen carbonatedetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This enzyme condenses acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA, which is the substrate for HMG-CoA reductase.
Gene Name:
HMGCS2
Uniprot ID:
Q2KIE6
Molecular weight:
56895.0
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Acetoacetyl-CoA + Water → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme Adetails
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CS
Uniprot ID:
Q29RK1
Molecular weight:
51773.0
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Oxalacetic acid → Citric acid + Coenzyme Adetails
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. The reaction comprises two steps that are both catalyzed by the same enzyme: formation of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and triphosphate, and subsequent hydrolysis of the triphosphate.
Gene Name:
MAT1A
Uniprot ID:
Q2KJC6
Molecular weight:
43761.0
Reactions
Selenomethionine + Adenosine triphosphate + Water → Se-Adenosylselenomethionine + Hydrogen phosphate + Pyrophosphatedetails
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Methionine + Water → S-Adenosylmethionine + Hydrogen phosphate + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in inositol oxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MIOX
Uniprot ID:
A7MBE4
Molecular weight:
32973.0
Reactions
Myoinositol + Oxygen → D-Glucuronic acid + Waterdetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
FAH
Uniprot ID:
A5PKH3
Molecular weight:
46156.0
Reactions
4-Fumarylacetoacetic acid + Water → Acetoacetic acid + Fumaric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in 3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP (PubMed:8530505). Specifically regulates nitric-oxide-generated cGMP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PDE5A
Uniprot ID:
Q28156
Molecular weight:
98627.0
Reactions
Guanosine 2',3'-cyclic phosphate + Water → Guanosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
TGDS
Uniprot ID:
A6QLW2
Molecular weight:
40666.0
Reactions
Guanosine diphosphate mannose → GDP-4-Dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose + Waterdetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Responsible for the provision of inositol required for synthesis of phosphatidylinositol and polyphosphoinositides and has been implicated as the pharmacological target for lithium action in brain. Has broad substrate specificity and can use myo-inositol monophosphates, myo-inositol 1,3-diphosphate, myo-inositol 1,4-diphosphate, scyllo-inositol-phosphate, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-phosphate, beta-glycerophosphate, and 2'-AMP as substrates (By similarity). Is equally active with myo-inositol monophosphate and D-galactose 1-phosphate.
Gene Name:
IMPA1
Uniprot ID:
P20456
Molecular weight:
30056.0
Reactions
Myo-inositol 1-phosphate + Water → Myoinositol + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
INPP1
Uniprot ID:
P21327
Molecular weight:
43965.0
Reactions
1D-Myo-inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate + Water → 1D-Myo-inositol 3,4-bisphosphate + Pyrophosphatedetails
Inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate + Water → 1D-Myo-inositol 3,4-bisphosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This isozyme plays a key role in skeletal mineralization by regulating levels of diphosphate (PPi).
Gene Name:
ALPL
Uniprot ID:
P09487
Molecular weight:
57193.0
Reactions
Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate + Water → Pyridoxine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Glycolytic enzyme the catalyzes the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate (By similarity). In addition to glycolysis, involved in various processes such as growth control, hypoxia tolerance and allergic responses (PubMed:7499243). May also function in the intravascular and pericellular fibrinolytic system due to its ability to serve as a receptor and activator of plasminogen on the cell surface of several cell-types such as leukocytes and neurons (By similarity). Stimulates immunoglobulin production (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ENO1
Uniprot ID:
Q9XSJ4
Molecular weight:
47326.0
Reactions
2-Phospho-D-glyceric acid → Phosphoenolpyruvic acid + Waterdetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of serine from carbohydrates. The reaction mechanism proceeds via the formation of a phosphoryl-enzyme intermediates (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PSPH
Uniprot ID:
Q2KHU0
Molecular weight:
24850.0
Reactions
Phosphoserine + Water → L-Serine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Replication, recombination and repair
Specific function:
Cleaves a beta-phosphate from the diphosphate groups in PP-InsP5 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate) and [PP]2-InsP4 (bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate), suggesting that it may play a role in signal transduction. InsP6 (inositol hexakisphosphate) is not a substrate. Also able to catalyze the hydrolysis of dinucleoside oligophosphates, with Ap6A and Ap5A being the preferred substrates. The major reaction products are ADP and p4a from Ap6A and ADP and ATP from Ap5A. Also able to hydrolyze 5-phosphoribose 1-diphosphate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NUDT3
Uniprot ID:
A2VE79
Molecular weight:
19362.0
Reactions
5-Diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate + Water → Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes the non-canonical purine nucleotides inosine triphosphate (ITP), deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) as well as 2'-deoxy-N-6-hydroxylaminopurine triposphate (dHAPTP) and xanthosine 5'-triphosphate (XTP) to their respective monophosphate derivatives. The enzyme does not distinguish between the deoxy- and ribose forms. Probably excludes non-canonical purines from RNA and DNA precursor pools, thus preventing their incorporation into RNA and DNA and avoiding chromosomal lesions.
Gene Name:
ITPA
Uniprot ID:
Q2KIC5
Molecular weight:
23061.0
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Water → Guanosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphatedetails
Inosine triphosphate + Water → Inosinic acid + Pyrophosphatedetails
Uridine triphosphate + Water → Uridine 5'-monophosphate + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Replication, recombination and repair
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes NAD(P)H to NMNH and AMP (2',5'-ADP), and diadenosine diphosphate to AMP. Has also activity towards NAD(P)(+), ADP-ribose and diadenosine triphosphate. May act to regulate the concentration of peroxisomal nicotinamide nucleotide cofactors required for oxidative metabolism in this organelle.
Gene Name:
NUDT12
Uniprot ID:
Q29RH3
Molecular weight:
50119.0
Reactions
NAD + Water → Nicotinamide ribotide + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Water → Nicotinic acid mononucleotide + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Water →2 Nicotinic acid mononucleotidedetails
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name:
GPX1
Uniprot ID:
P00435
Molecular weight:
22659.0
Reactions
2 Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione +2 Waterdetails
15(S)-HPETE + 2 Glutathione → 15(S)-HETE + Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 161 proteins in total.